Monday, October 9, 2017





           Uranium Trade 101 - India & Pakistan

                          ( Pollution Science 101 - India )         

                                             Michael James Ross

                                          Monsantoinvestigation.com


-----------------------------------------------------

The following article will detail the worldwide Uranium trade, including the current environmental damage in India.

To read an additional article about the pollution going on in India, click on the following link. This link is considered an additional section to this article.

Pollution Science 101 - India - Ecological Collapse 
( PollutionScience101india.Blogspot.com ).

-------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------

 Chapter 1: The Uranium Trade
 Chapter 2: Pesticides
 Chapter 3: Corruption
 Chapter 4: India vs Pakistan
 Chapter 5: History

---------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------


--------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------

 Chapter 1: The Uranium Trade

-----------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------



---------------------------------------------------------------------

Pakistan threatens a nuclear war with India


October 04, 2016


With the West distracted by entertainment, professional sport and the U.S. presidential elections, the war clouds that started gathering over the Indian subcontinent in September have now thickened after a threat from Pakistan that it will use nuclear weapons to “annihilate” India.
The latest flare-up in the 70-year-old India-Pakistan conflict began after an attack on an Indian army base by jihadi suicide bombers infiltrating from Pakistan that left 19 Indian soldiers dead.
India responded with what it called a “surgical strike” on the terrorist camps inside the Pakistan-administered part of Kashmir, resulting in “significant casualties” among the jihadi militants, in addition to some regular Pakistan troops.


 http://www.torontosun.com/2016/10/04/pakistan-threatens-a-nuclear-war-with-india


--------------------------------------------------------------

India could strike Pakistan with nuclear weapons if threatened, says expert

  

Mar 21, 2017

India could junk its no-first use policy to launch a preemptive first strike against Pakistan if it feared a nuclear attack was imminent, a leading nuclear strategist has said.


http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-could-strike-pakistan-with-nuclear-weapons-if-threatened-says-expert/story-P5N8QuKOldxAJ9UPjboijM.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

Canada, India agree to $350-million uranium supply deal


April 15, 2015


Canada and India are back in the nuclear business together after a decades-long moratorium with a uranium sale to New Delhi that opens the door for Canadians to profit from a growing Indian appetite for power from reactors.
Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi unveiled a $350-million deal on Wednesday for Canada's largest uranium producer, Cameco Corp., to supply 3,220 metric tonnes to power India's reactors over the next five years.

 https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/canada-india-agree-to-major-uranium-supply-deal/article23967494/?ref=http://www.theglobeandmail.com&

---------------------------------------------------


Canada and India: The nuclear genie, 40 years on


 April 15, 2015

 After an absence of 40 years, Canada is once again selling uranium to India. The deal is a good one for Saskatoon-based Cameco Corp., which has won a lucrative five-year contract to supply more than seven million pounds of uranium concentrate to one of the few major countries intent on expanding its nuclear generating capacity...

 https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/editorials/canada-and-india-the-nuclear-genie-40-years-on/article23978162/



-----------------------------------------------------



Uranium sale

Last week there was a big international story in the news. I know what you're thinking; President Obama visited Australia, right? Well that was a big story in fact it was so big that it took attention away from another important story that the government is thinking about exporting uranium to India. In any other week that would have been massive news but with the President coming to town you might have missed it and that might have been just what the Prime Minister was aiming for.

 http://www.abc.net.au/btn/story/s3370382.htm

-------------------------------------------------------


Russia set to team up with India on NUCLEAR REACTOR as relations deteriorate with the West


 Nov 2, 2016

 

RUSSIA is cosying up to India amid heightened tensions between Moscow and the West as the two potential allies consider collaborating on the development of an atomic reactor.


http://www.express.co.uk/news/world/727823/russia-nuclear-reactor-atomic-moscow-putin-west-india-energy

------------------------------------------------

Uranium shipment signals end of US-Russian nuclear deal


November 14, 2013


MOSCOW (Reuters) - A 20-year-old deal that has powered American homes while reducing the risk of Russian nuclear material falling into the wrong hands approached its end on Thursday when the final shipment of uranium left St Petersburg for Baltimore.
Under the 1993 HEU Purchase Agreement, Russia downblended 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from nuclear weapons into low-enriched uranium and sent it to the United States, where it was made into fuel for nuclear power plants.


 http://www.reuters.com/article/us-russia-usa-nuclear/uranium-shipment-signals-end-of-us-russian-nuclear-deal-idUSBRE9AD15620131114

-------------------------------------------------

Strategic trade with India ‘to push third outbreak of nukes’


 June 18, 2017

LONDON - Apparently timed to appear before upcoming plenary meeting of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) from June 22-23, King's College London has released a damning report on Indian nuclear programme.
The report by Project Alpha concludes that the strategic trade with India will enhance its nuclear weapons latency and enable it to push for a third `breakout' of nuclear weapons.
This British assessment raises fears that India surreptitiously superseded even the United Kingdom and France in their arsenal size and could pose a serious threat to their security once geopolitical alliances shift.
A similar conclusion was drawn by Harvard University Belfer Centre's recent report, titled 'Indian Nuclear Exceptionalism', which concludes that India has ostensibly a fissile material stock worth 2,600 nuclear warheads. This assessment makes India fall in the unenviable third place after the United States and Russia.
A more modest assessment had appeared last year in a petite book by four Pakistani scholars, who placed Indian nuclear arsenal at around 500 warheads - still making it the holder Bronze Medal amongst the nuclear-armed states.

 http://nation.com.pk/national/18-Jun-2017/strategic-trade-with-india-to-push-third-outbreak-of-nukes

-------------------------------------------------------


Russia signs fuel supply contract with India


11 February 2009

Russian nuclear fuel producer TVEL and India's Department of Atomic Energy have signed long-term contracts worth more than $700 million for the supply of nuclear fuel to India's nuclear power plants.

 http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/newsarticle.aspx?id=24645

----------------------------------------------------


The truth about the Hillary Clinton-Russia-Uranium 'scandal'

  
Apr. 28, 2015

The basic facts: This story is about the sale of a controlling stake in a Canadian company called Uranium One to Rosatom, the Russian atomic energy agency. Because Uranium One controlled uranium mines in the United States, the sale had to be approved by the Committee on Foreign Investment In the United States (CFIUS), part of the executive branch.
A number of investors in Uranium One gave donations to the Clinton Foundation during the time the sale was being considered (between 2008 and 2010), in part through the participation of Frank Giustra, a Canadian mining magnate who was a large donor to the Foundation and who had controlled a company that eventually bought Uranium One (according to the Times, Giustra sold his interest in the company in 2007, before the Rosatom deal).

 http://www.businessinsider.com/everything-we-know-about-the-hillary-clinton-russia-uranium-scandal-2015-4


----------------------------------------------------------


Terrorism and the Soviet Union

F

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism_and_the_Soviet_Union

-------------



How the KGB Created Arafat and PLO


 August 9, 2007


 https://pamelageller.com/2007/08/how-the-kgb-cre.html/

----------------


The Communist Roots of Palestinian Terror

December 14, 2007


http://archive.frontpagemag.com/readArticle.aspx?ARTID=29207


-------------------

THE ROOTS OF ISLAMIC TERRORISM


March 2002

http://users.jyu.fi/~aphamala/pe/issue5/roots.htm

------------------

The Russian Roots of Terrorism


 

 I learned about the passing of former Washington Times columnist John Lofton as I was looking through an old file of clippings and found a Lofton gem entitled, “Where terrorism is rooted,” from the July 5, 1985, issue of the paper. It’s a reminder of Lofton’s important style of writing and the fact that the Islamists we face today learned their style of warfare from the Soviets, who established the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as “the fulcrum of the Soviet Union’s strategic approach” to world revolution, especially control of the Middle East.

 http://www.aim.org/aim-column/the-russian-roots-of-terrorism/


-----------------------------------------------------------


Australia quietly makes first uranium shipment to India three years after supply agreement


18 Jul 2017

 Three years after signing a civilian nuclear supply treaty, the Federal Government confirmed overnight the first shipment of Australian uranium has left for India.

 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-07-19/australia-quietly-makes-first-uranium-shipment-to-india/8722108

------------------------------------------------

Why is India buying uranium from Australia when we have (possibly) the world's largest uranium reserve in Tummalapalle, AP?



https://www.quora.com/Why-is-India-buying-uranium-from-Australia-when-we-have-possibly-the-worlds-largest-uranium-reserve-in-Tummalapalle-AP


---------------------------------------------

North Korea tests ‘H bomb’: Why it raises security concerns for India

 

 Sep 04, 2017

 

North Korea carried out a powerful nuclear test on Monday, claiming to have developed an advanced hydrogen bomb that could sit atop an intercontinental ballistic missile.


 http://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/north-korea-tests-h-bomb-why-it-raises-security-concerns-for-india/story-12VWUJs6fdPINZ88iHwNBI.html

-------------------------------------------------

Pakistan’s sale of nuclear materials to N Korea hushed up by China

 

  June 22, 2016

The Chinese Government hushed up the matter as it could have consequences for Beijing's bid to support Pakistan at the NSG.

Pakistan is continuing to sell nuclear materials to North Korea, while at the same time urging the international community to accept its membership to the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), according to highly placed US sources who are involved with the tracking of nuclear commerce...

 http://indianexpress.com/article/world/world-news/pakistan-china-nsg-north-korea-nuclear-materials-2869252/

--------------------------------------------------

Who Created Pakistan’s Nuclear Arsenal?


http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jamyang-norbu/who-created-pakistans-nuc_b_864124.html

In the wake of the successful American operation to take out Bin Laden, the issue of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons has once again come the fore, especially when latest reports indicate that Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal is growing at a rate that will make it the fourth-largest in a decade behind only the United States, Russia and China. Newsweek (May 16, 2011) has just come out with an interview with A.Q. Khan, the “father” of Pakistan’s bomb, in which he claims that “... it was an Indian nuclear explosion in May 1974 that prompted our nuclear program, motivating me to return to Pakistan to help create a credible nuclear deterrent and save my country from Indian nuclear blackmail.”
Pakistanis may proudly hail Khan as the father of the “Islamic bomb,” but what is generally not mentioned is that Khan’s PhD is in metallurgical engineering. Khan was certainly responsible for stealing blueprints for the manufacture of enriched uranium from a Dutch laboratory in 1972, but he was not involved with the actual design, development and testing of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons. He wasn’t even living in the country when Pakistan’s nuclear weapon program was secretly launched in 1972. Khan was only put in charge of Pakistan’s uranium enrichment program in 1976.
A New York Times report describes China’s vital contribution to the genesis of Pakistan’s nuclear program:
“China, a staunch ally of Pakistan’s, provided blueprints for the bomb, as well as highly enriched uranium, tritium, scientists and key components for a nuclear weapons production complex, among other crucial tools. ‘Without China’s help, Pakistan’s bomb would not exist’ said Gary Milhollin, a leading expert on the spread of nuclear weapons.”
According to a survey of WMD proliferation published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace:
“China’s assistance to Pakistan’s nuclear program over the past 15 years may have been critical to Pakistan’s nuclear weapon breakthroughs in the 1980s. China was believed to have supplied Pakistan with the plans for one of its earlier nuclear bombs and possibly to have provided enough highly enriched uranium for two such weapons.”
The Carnegie Endowment supported survey also details China’s assistance to Pakistan in the construction of plutonium production reactor at Khusab and an unsafeguarded plutonium reprocessing facility at Chasma, giving Pakistan, for the first time, a dependable source of plutonium for use in nuclear weapons.
India was initially ahead not only of Pakistan, but even China, in the nuclear field. In the fifties the Indian leadership and scientific community generally subscribed (somewhat naively in retrospect) to the Nehruvian vision of the upliftment of the third world through the peaceful harnessing of nuclear energy, while from the start China’s “...nuclear effort (aided substantially by the USSR) remained almost exclusively military.” In 1955, India’s top nuclear scientist, Homi Bhabha, was president of the landmark international Atoms for Peace Conference in Geneva. India’s first nuclear plant (1957) at Trombay “seemed open and aboveboard. There was no secrecy about it.”
The irony is that India’s nuclear weapons program resulted directly from two Chinese actions: the 1962 military attack on India and the 1964 explosion of China’s first nuclear bomb. “The Chinese bomb hurt Bhabha’s pride as much as his patriotism.” (Peter Pringle & James Spigelman, The Nuclear Barons) Within weeks Bhabha was calling for a nuclear deterrent, and in a few months Indian prime-minister Lal Bahadur Shastri gave the go-ahead. But Bhabha’s death and the strong political and moral opposition to the program kept it on hold till 1974 when under Mrs. Indira Gandhi, India conducted its first test.
Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal and superior delivery system has in a real sense neutralized India’s overwhelming advantage in conventional military terms that it enjoyed over Pakistan. By building up Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal and missile systems, China has effectively checkmated India and blind-sided its challenge as China’s main Asian rival.
China has also in a sense checkmated America and its Asian allies, South Korea and Japan, by providing, through its proxy, Pakistan, nuclear weapons technology to North Korea. In June 2002, the CIA delivered a comprehensive analysis of North Korea’s nuclear ambitions to President Bush “that Pakistan, one of the Bush Administration’s important allies in the war against terrorism, and chief recipient of Chinese nuclear technology, was helping North Korea build the bomb.” Pakistan’s “A.Q. Khan, is known to have paid at least 13 visits to North Korea.”
Furthermore it has given the Beijing the opportunity to assume the moral high ground and set itself up as an honest broker between the USA and North Korea. It has organized a couple of fruitless meetings in Beijing, assigning to itself an assertive mediating role, and never failing to condemn American lack of cooperation for the collapse of the talks.
On February 17, 2004, the Washington Post came out with the story that Libya’s nuclear weapon design had come from China. The discovery was made by international inspectors after they studied a package of documents turned over to U.S. officials in November last year by Libyan authorities. “The bomb designs and other papers turned over by Libya have yielded dramatic evidence of China’s long-suspected role in transferring nuclear know-how to Pakistan.” The Post story also mentioned that “the packet of documents, some of which included text in Chinese, contained detailed, step-by-step instructions for assembling an implosion-type nuclear bomb that could fit atop a large ballistic missile. They also included technical instructions for manufacturing components for the device, the officials and experts said.”
China’s actions “were irresponsible and short-sighted, and raise questions about what else China provided to Pakistan’s nuclear program,” said David Albright, a nuclear physicist and former U.N. weapons inspector in Iraq.
It might be noted that the bomb design for Saddam Hussein’s aborted nuclear weapons program was also of Chinese origin. (Tom Zeller, “Psssst...Can I Get A Bomb Trigger?”, (case overviews compiled by Jordan Richie and Gary Milhollin of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control) The New York Times, September 15, 2002.)
On June 15, 2004, Reuters reported that congressional investigators from the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission had accused China of sending nuclear technology to Iran in exchange for oil. Pakistan and China signed long-term nuclear cooperation agreements with Iran in 1987 and 1990, respectively. Accords with both countries involved training personnel, and in the case of China, the accord included an agreement to provide Iran with a 27KW miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) and two 300MW Qinshan power reactors. Western intelligence suspected that Pakistan, which many estimated had succeeded in manufacturing a nuclear bomb in 1986, provided Iran with nuclear assistance. Reports in Western press and leaks from Western government and intelligence sources indicated that Pakistan had trained Iranian scientists in plutonium extraction and possibly gas centrifuge enrichment research.


-------------------------------------------------


Nuclear power in Pakistan


As of 2017, nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 5 commercial nuclear power plants.[1] Pakistan is the first Muslim country in the world to construct and operate civil nuclear power plants.[2] The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), the scientific and nuclear governmental agency, is solely responsible for operating these power plants

International co-operation

People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China has been a strong vocal and avid supporter of Pakistan's nuclear power generation programme from the early on. The history of Chinese-Pakistan cooperation dates back to the 1970s when Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, as prime minister, first visited China. The strong academic interaction between Chinese and Pakistan scientists was begun in the 1970s. In 1986, the scientists from KRL and military engineers of Pakistan Army Engineering Corps built a HEU enrichment plant in Hanzhong province of PRC, and provided technical assistance to China in weapon-grade centrifuge technology for Chinese nuclear weapons. From the 1980s to the present, China has contracted with Pakistan to use of civil and electricity purpose use of nuclear technology.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_in_Pakistan#People.27s_Republic_of_China

-------------------------------------------------

Pakistan has world's fastest growing nuclear stockpile









--------------------------------------------------

Will Pakistan Soon Have the World’s Third-Largest Nuclear Arsenal?
 

 August 31, 3015

Just how many nuclear weapons does Pakistan have?

 



----------------------------------------------------


Report: Pakistan will have 150 to 200 nuclear warheads in the next decade




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/07/report-pakistan-will-have-150-to-200-nuclear-warheads-in-the-next-decade

---------------------------------------------------------

Pakistan’s army is building an arsenal of ”tiny” nuclear weapons—and it’s going to backfire


 

Pakistan has the fastest growing nuclear arsenal and, within the next five to ten years, it is likely to double that of India, and exceed those of France, the United Kingdom, and China. Only the arsenals of the United States and Russia will be larger.
In recent years, Pakistan has boasted of developing “tactical nuclear weapons” to protect itself against potential offensive actions by India. In fact, Pakistan is the only country currently boasting of making increasingly tiny nuclear weapons (link in Urdu).

 https://qz.com/579334/pakistans-army-is-building-an-arsenal-of-tiny-nuclear-weapons-and-its-going-to-backfire/

------------------------------------------------------



Surprise: Pakistani generals helped sell nuclear secrets




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/07/surprise-pakistani-generals-helped-sell-nuclear-secrets

-----------------------------------------------------


Thug-In-Chief: “Iran is ready to reinforce its cooperation with Pakistan in every field”




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/07/thug-in-chief-iran-is-ready-to-reinforce-its-cooperation-with-pakistan-in-every-field

-------------------------------------------

Billions Of Lives Are At Stake As China Threatens India With War

 

There several powerful nations that could spark a global conflagration without America’s input.

 
SHTF Plan - July 20, 2017


 https://www.infowars.com/billions-of-lives-are-at-stake-as-china-threatens-india-with-war/


------------------------------------------------------

Is India turning its nuclear focus toward China?



India's nuclear policy is now believed to be placing a greater emphasis on China instead of focusing on archrival Pakistan. But this is not to be mistaken as a shift in the nation's nuclear doctrine, say experts.

 http://www.dw.com/en/is-india-turning-its-nuclear-focus-toward-china/a-39698420

-----------------------------------------------------

China, India raise alumina sales to Iran after sanctions push others out


August 2013

* Iran imported 30,000 T of alumina from China over June, July
* India’s NALCO awards alumina tender to Iran producer
* Shipments are smelter grade, not chemical grade - traders
* Unlikely to have military or nuclear applications
By Polly Yam and Jatindra Dash
HONG KONG/BHUBANESWAR, India, Aug 27 (Reuters) - Iran has hiked purchases of alumina from China and India in the past two months as the country scrambles to shore up supply after the U.S. tightened sanctions on raw and semi-processed materials at the start of July.
Western measures targeting Iran’s disputed nuclear programme have hit many sectors of its economy including industries producing steel and other metals, where it is heavily dependent on imports. Tehran says its atomic work is peaceful.
Tightened U.S. sanctions came into effect on July 1 that extended a ban on aluminium metal to cover raw and semi-finished metals as well. China and India have won waivers from any U.S. sanctions on their financial system related to trade with Iran because they have cut imports of Iranian oil.
China’s alumina exports to Iran jumped to record levels in June and July, customs data shows, while India’s national aluminium producer has awarded an alumina tender to Iran’s national smelter in the past two months, company sources say.
“Iran has historically had a decent-sized aluminium industry. Given the savage squeeze in the international sanctions against it, clearly it’s easier for Iran to do these kind of transactions with countries like China,” said Nic Brown, an commodities analyst at Natixis in London.
“Particularly if they are handled as some sort of barter arrangement, where China gets its energy and in return it provides raw or intermediate goods,” he added.
Alumina is a refined version of the raw ore bauxite. It is typically used to make aluminium, but in its high purity form it can have sensitive military applications.
But the price of the material would indicate that Iran’s imports from China and India are likely to have been of lower quality smelter grade alumina rather than the high-purity material known as chemical grade, traders said.
Chemical grade alumina can have military uses, such as to make ceramic composites used in missiles and armour.
The prices Iran paid for the material from India and China were less than a quarter of that for chemical grade material.
Aluminium alloys can be used to make tubes for uranium enrichment gas centrifuges. Most newer gas centrifuges are made of a carbon composite material, though Iran’s current centrifuge programme in operation is based on aluminium. Aluminium is also used in everything from cars to aircraft, buildings and cans.

 http://www.reuters.com/article/iran-alumina/china-india-raise-alumina-sales-to-iran-after-sanctions-push-others-out-idUSL6N0GR0WB20130827

--------------------------------------------------


Extradited Chinese national guilty of supplying Iran with goods used to make nuclear weapons-grade uranium




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/12/extradited-chinese-national-guilty-of-supplying-iran-with-goods-used-to-make-nuclear-weapons-grade-uranium

-------------------------------------------------

India–Iran relations


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India%E2%80%93Iran_relations

------------------------------------------------------

P5 Plus 1 – Iran Nuclear Deal: What It Means for India


 April 2015

Lausanne witnessed a historic moment on April 2, when Iran and the P5 + 1 (United States, Russia, China, France, Britain, and Germany) announced the interim agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme. The agreement is currently in progress and the final deal is scheduled to be signed on June 30 (fingers crossed). If the agreement does transform into a deal, the development is set to bring a monumental shift to the global strategic landscape.
The deal will restrict the scope of Iran’s nuclear programme, with severe reductions in terms of its installed enrichment centrifuges, size of uranium stockpile, etc. Additionally, Iran will have to turn its second enrichment facility, Fordow, into a physics research centre and end all enrichment activities there. Tehran will also be expected to provide greater access to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to “inspect any facility, declared or otherwise, as long as it is deemed to be suspicious.” As long as Iran abides by these and many more terms, strict economic sanctions that have been levied on the country, both internationally and bilaterally, will be eventually lifted.
Much to the relief of Iran and many other countries (minus the sulkers such as Saudi Arabia and Israel), Tehran would return to the global arena as a ‘normal state.’ Iran’s homecoming will be greatly significant for New Delhi. The announcement of the Lausanne agreement was met with jubilation in India’s political circles. Hailing the development as a “significant step,” External Affairs Ministry Spokesperson Syed Akbaruddin said, “India has always maintained that the Iranian nuclear issue should be resolved peacefully by respecting Iran’s right to peaceful uses of nuclear energy as also the international community’s strong interest in the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran’s nuclear programme.”
A culmination of the agreement into a deal will resolve a lot of issues for India and Iran in multiple aspects, and facilitate greater political and economic interaction between the two countries. The following are some of the areas (with no order of significance) wherein India would benefit from the P5+1-Iran nuclear accord:

https://southasianvoices.org/p5-plus-1-iran-nuclear-deal-what-it-means-for-india/

------------------------------------------------------


 India, Iran and Afghanistan sign historic land transit trade agreement

May 2016

 India, Iran and Afghanistan sign historic three-way land transit agreement on Iran’s strategic southern port of Chabahar. It was signed by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani and Afghanistan President Ashraf Ghani in Teheran, Iran.

Under the agreement, India will invest up to 500 million dollars in a deal to develop a strategic port in Iran. Chabahar port is strategically located in the Sistan-Balochistan Province on the energy-rich Persian Gulf nation’s southern coast. It lies outside the Persian Gulf and is easily accessed from India’s western coast, bypassing Pakistan...


 https://currentaffairs.gktoday.in/india-iran-afghanistan-sign-historic-land-transit-trade-agreement-05201633120.html

---------------------------------------------------

WikiLeaks: Alliance of Hillary, Iran, Soros and left-wing Catholics




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/10/wikileaks-alliance-of-hillary-iran-soros-and-left-wing-catholics


-----------------------------------------------

Obama will veto counter-terror measures to save the Iran nuke deal






------------------------------------------------


Obama administration has given Iran $700 million each month since nuke deal signed, totaling over $10 billion





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/01/obama-administration-has-given-iran-700-million-each-month-since-nuke-deal-signed-totaling-over-10-billion


----------------------------------------------

Obama administration approves huge shipment of uranium to Iran




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/01/obama-administration-approves-huge-shipment-of-uranium-to-iran

----------------------------------------

India mulls key investment to set iron ore plants in Iran


 Feb. 3, 2016

State-owned Indian firm KIOCL may invest an initial $59 million to build an iron ore pellet complex in Iran, with the objective of offering cheaper supplies of the processed material to Iranian steel mills...

 http://www.mining.com/india-mulls-key-investment-to-set-iron-ore-plants-in-iran/


-----------------------------------------------------------


Report: Iran and North Korea working together to build nuclear missile




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/07/report-iran-and-north-korea-working-together-to-build-nuclear-missile

----------------------------------------


Iran to accelerate uranium enrichment, France says program has “no credible civilian application”


 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/07/iran-to-accelerate-uranium-enrichment-france-says-program-has-no-credible-civilian-application

------------------------------------------


Iran says it has 3,000 advanced centrifuges




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/03/iran-says-it-has-3000-advanced-centrifuges


-------------------------------------

Iran starts moving centrifuges to bunker for production of higher-grade uranium








------------------------------------------


Iran will start using fastest centrifuges on day deal takes effect








---------------------------------------

Iran’s President brags about deceiving the West over nuclear program








-------------------------------

Iran’s FM: “American and Canadian inspectors cannot be sent to Iran”






--------------------------------

Iran says the nuke deal will help it target Israel





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/08/iran-says-the-nuke-deal-will-help-it-target-israel

---------------------------------


Sanctions relief at work: Islamic Republic of Iran now offering $7,000 to families of “Palestinians” killed while murdering Israelis




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/02/sanctions-relief-at-work-islamic-republic-of-iran-now-offering-7000-to-families-of-palestinians-killed-while-murdering-israelis

---------------------------------

Video: Netanyahu blasts UN’s “deafening silence” on Iranian threats to wipe out Israel





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/10/video-netanyahu-blasts-uns-deafening-silence-on-iranian-threats-to-wipe-out-israel

-------------------------------

Prince Turki: Saudis will get nukes if Iranians do




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/05/prince-turki-saudis-will-get-nukes-if-iranians-do


--------------------------------

Seven Iranians with nuclear components arrested





Germany and Turkey arrested seven suspected Iranian smugglers who were transporting materials for that country”s nuclear program from India and Germany, according to a UPI report about an article in the Turkish Haberturk newspaper.
The components were to be delivered to the Iranian nuclear facility in Arak, Iran.


https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/03/seven-iranians-with-nuclear-components-arrested


-----------------------------------------


Obama pushing Israel to stop assassinating Iranian nuclear scientists





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/03/obama-pushing-israel-to-stop-assassinating-iranian-nuclear-scientists


-------------------------------------------

This calls for some champagne: A second Iranian nuclear facility has exploded





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/11/this-calls-for-some-champagne-a-second-iranian-nuclear-facility-has-exploded

----------------------------------------------

Yet another report of Iran funneling weapons to Iraq, Afghanistan




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/07/yet-another-report-of-iran-funneling-weapons-to-iraq-afghanistan

--------------------------------------

Iranian ayatollah: “Death to America is the first option on our table”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/iranian-ayattollah-death-to-america-is-the-first-option-on-our-table

----------------------------------------

Iranian Navy commander vows to sink U.S. warships as Iranian war vessels enter U.S. waters







------------------------------------

Iranian warships confront U.S. Navy on ‘daily basis’







--------------------------------


Libya confirms buying “A-bomb” plan from Pakistan







-----------------------------------

NEWS | India & Mongolia to Commence Talks on Uranium Trade


 March 2017

 India and Mongolia plan to begin governmental talks in March 2017 on trading in uranium, a mineral abundant in the land-locked Asian country and a key attraction for New Delhi as it seeks new sources of fuel for its ever-growing chain of nuclear plants by indulging into a tighter partnership with a nation on China's periphery.

Also, With these talks, Mongolia will be testing its traditional dependence on China by increasing its engagement with other countries i.e., going beyond China's dominion.


 http://www.indrastra.com/2017/03/NEWS-India-Mongolia-to-Commence-Talks-on-Uranium-Trade-003-03-2017-0031.html


--------------------------------------------------------------





Dayton, Ohio — where all nuclear bomb blasts begin


 January 16, 2016


A recent underground blast that North Korea claims was an experimental hydrogen bomb is a disquieting reminder that Dayton’s story of aviation heritage has a cautionary side.
Dayton is justifiably proud that its two most famous sons, Wilbur and Orville Wright, invented the airplane in their West Third Street bicycle shop and built America’s first airplane factory, also along West Third. Dayton International Airport reminds travelers that Dayton is “where every flight begins.”
But in that same West Third Street corridor, between the site of the Wrights’ bicycle shop and their factory, is another historic site: the place where every nuclear bomb blast begins.
Several countries have tested hydrogen bombs, and a few have produced H-bomb arsenals. But the path to the H-bomb begins with mastery of the smaller and simpler atomic bomb. During World War II, scientists working in Dayton played a crucial role in producing the all-important initiator for the bomb.
Dayton’s atom-bomb heritage began with two research chemists, Charles Thomas and Carroll Hochwalt, who formed Thomas and Hochwalt Laboratories in Dayton in 1926. A string of creative new products prompted the Monsanto Chemical Company to buy the firm, making it the company’s Central Research Department with Thomas as its director.
In 1943, the Army turned to Monsanto for help with the Manhattan Project, the secret program to build an atomic bomb. It was a two-track program to develop both a uranium bomb and a superior but more complex plutonium bomb.
Each bomb used a different kind of initiator to kick-start the atom-splitting process that causes a nuclear blast, but both depended on the same key ingredient: polonium-210, a highly radioactive metal that was also extremely rare. Nobody knew how to produce it in useful amounts.
Monsanto handed the problem to its Central Research Department in Dayton. Thomas and Hochwalt formed what became code-named the Dayton Project...

 http://www.mydaytondailynews.com/news/opinion/dayton-ohio-where-all-nuclear-bomb-blasts-begin/oQEkVkZDB168m00rZIyc2O/

-----------------------------------



Dayton Project



The Dayton Project was a research and development project that was part of the larger Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs. Work took place at several sites in and around Dayton, Ohio. Those working on the project were ultimately responsible for creating the polonium-based modulated neutron initiators which were used to begin the chain reactions in the atomic bombs. The Dayton Project ran from 1943 to 1949, when the Mound Laboratories were completed in nearby Miamisburg, Ohio and the work moved there.
The Dayton Project began in 1943 when Monsanto's Charles Allen Thomas was recruited by the Manhattan Project to coordinate the plutonium purification and production work being carried out at various sites. Scientists at the Los Alamos Laboratory calculated that a plutonium bomb would require a neutron initiator. The best-known neutron sources used radioactive polonium and beryllium, so Thomas undertook to produce polonium at Monsanto's laboratories in Dayton.
The Dayton Project developed techniques for extracting polonium-210 from the lead dioxide ore in which it occurs naturally, and from bismuth targets that had been bombarded by neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Ultimately, polonium-based neutron initiators were used in both the gun-type Little Boy and the implosion-type Fat Man used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively. The fact that polonium was used as an initiator was classified until the 1960s, but George Koval, a technician with the Manhattan Project's Special Engineer Detachment, penetrated the Dayton Project as a spy for the Soviet Union.


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dayton_Project


----------------------------------

Impacts of nuclear waste

 

Nuclear wastes are normally classified as low, medium or high-level, according to the amount and types of radioactivity they contain. The high-level waste produced by nuclear reactors is the longest lasting contamination risk of a nuclear power plant.
The European Pressurised Reactor (EPR) is a so-called ‘Generation III’ design of nuclear reactor, designed to use fuel more efficiently. But the amount of dangerous materials in spent nuclear fuel increases significantly with the time the fuel stays in the reactor. Studies have shown that nuclear fuel from EPRs will be up to seven times more hazardous per unit of electric output because of the drastic increases in the amount of easily released, dangerous and long-lasting isotopes such as iodine-129 (1) that that produced by existing nuclear reactors(2).
All of the options for handling nuclear waste have potentially large environmental and health impacts: waste disposal sites have the potential to contaminate the environment for hundreds of thousands of years(3) if the radionuclide dispersion barriers fail; transports of high-level waste or plutonium are at risk from accidents or deliberate attacks and reprocessing facilities have large routine emissions of radioactive substances.
The impacts of a chosen method of waste management should be included in the EIA; if one has not yet been selected then impacts of all possibilities – whether waste is buried on site, transported elsewhere for disposal or reprocessed - should be assessed.
The Jaitapur EIA report ignores the impact of nuclear waste, and questions raised about it during the public hearing have been given conflicting answers. Some say that the waste will be transported away from the site for reprocessing; others indicate that the government will later decide upon establishing a reprocessing facility on site. No assessment of the impacts of either of these is presented. Questions about high-level waste are answered with information about low and medium-level wastes.

http://www.greenpeace.org/india/en/What-We-Do/Nuclear-Unsafe/Nuclear-Power-in-India/Jaitapur-nuclear-power-plant/Environmental-Impacts/Whats-wrong-with-the-Jaitapur-EIA/Impacts-of-nuclear-waste/

----------------------------------------------


Radioactive Wastes, Impacts, and International Tension


 July 2014


Radioactive wastes are chemical wastes which contain their own unique blend of hundreds of distinctly unstable atomic structures called radio-isotopes. Each radio isotope has its own lifespan and potency for giving off alpha, beta and gamma rays. These rays can cause cancer and other diseases in human beings and animals; most frightening of all, radiation emitted by radioactive wastes can cause genetic mutation resulting in birth defects in human babies. Scientists have not discovered any foolproof way to permanently contain radioactive wastes, and currently-spent fuels from power plants are stored in dry castes, which must be kept cool. One spoonful of plutonium powder is enough to destroy the population of a large city.
A Dumping Ground for Nuclear Waste
The Vienna Declaration of the World Conference on Human Rights, 1993, articulated that, “Illicit dumping of toxic and dangerous substances potentially constitutes a serious threat to human rights, life and the health of everyone.”
The Basel Convention, signed in 1992 by various countries and to which China is a signatory, and the subsequent Basel Ban, adopted as an amendment to the convention in September 1995, prohibit trade in hazardous wastes from industrialised to non-industrialised countries. At the fourth Conference of Parties (COP-IV) held in Kuching, Malaysia, between 23-27 February 1998, China supported no changes to the Basel Ban to stop certain developing countries from benefiting from trade in recyclable hazardous waste. Although this is a step in the right direction, China’s own record of waste disposal on the Tibetan Plateau is dismal, to say the least.
On 18 February 1984, The Washington Post reported that China had tentatively agreed to store up to 4,000 tons of radioactive waste from European nuclear reactors in the remote Gobi Desert in exchange for US$ 6 billion. Since then this was to take place over the next 16 years. In the fall of 1988, news began circulating among Tibetans that Tibet was to be used as a nuclear dumping ground for Western Europe. According to His Holiness the Dalai Lama, a signed document offered evidence that the Chinese government was planning to dump foreign nuclear waste in Tibet (Weisskopf 1984).
In 1991, Greenpeace reported that the city officials in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, had secured a tentative agreement with China to ship 20,000 tons of the city’s toxic sewage waste to Tibet in exchange for payment of US$1.44 million. The brokers for the shipment were California Enterprises, and Hainan Sunlit Group, a Chinese government agency. The latter stated that such shipments did not require government approval according to China’s import rules, and guaranteed that the sludge would not be shipped back to the USA. Greenpeace noted that the import document described the shipment as “heni”, which means “river silt” in Chinese. Greenpeace protested that “urban sewage is not river silt”. In the United States, sludge from urban sewage treatment plants are chronically laced with toxic pollutants. In Milwaukee, USA, such use was linked to outbreaks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Due to international pressure the above shipment of waste to Tibet did not take place.
His Holiness the Dalai Lama, while participating in a meetthe – press programme, organised by the Karnataka Union of Working Journalists in Bangalore in India, said he had authentic information that China had set up a nuclear weapons factory in Tibet. He said that China had stationed a half-a-million-strong military force in Tibet, which indicated that the situation in the occupied territory was potentially explosive (The Statesman 21 January 1992).
China’s Nationalities Affairs Commission issued a document through Xinhua on 18 April 1991 stating that allegations of nuclear pollution from the deployment of nuclear weapons and nuclear waste in Tibet were “totally groundless”. However, the same news agency had admitted that nuclear wastes were dumped in Tibet. On 19 July 1995 it reported that there was a “20 square metre dump for radioactive pollutants” in Tsojang (Haibei) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture near the shores of Lake Kokonor. The report claimed that the military nuclear weapons facility (Ninth Academy), that produced the waste, had maintained an “excellent” safety record during its 30 years of operation, and that there had not been “any harm to the environment” and “no one at the base ever died of radiation”.
The report did not give details as to how the nuclear waste was initially contained or how it is being managed. It did however quote You Deliang, spokesman for the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), as saying that China spent a large amount of money from 1989 to 1993 to “strictly supervise the environmental conditions of the retired nuclear weapons base”.
Chinese government propaganda even went to the extent of saying: “Haibei Prefecture moved its capital from Menynan county to the site of the retired nuclear plant, only one month after the area passed a state examination in June, 1993. Atom Bomb City (Ninth Academy) has since been serving the economic prosperity of the people” (Xinhua 19 July 1995) A 1993 report, Nuclear Tibet, published by the International Campaign for Tibet, documented reports by a Tibetan doctor, Tashi Dolma, of abnormally high rates of diseases in the nearby towns of Reshui and Ganzihe. She also treated children of nomads who grazed their animals་adjacent to the “Ninth Academy” or “Factory 211,” nuclear་base, seven of whom died of cancer within five years.
Shallow land burial techniques for nuclear waste,་considered obsolete in the West, were deemed “sufficiently་safe” for implementation in China. On the proposed site་for High Level Waste (HLW), Chinese officials said that་China had a very wide distribution area and it would be easy་to find a site (UNI 1988). Since Tibet is sparsely populated by “minority nationalities” and is far removed from Beijing,་the Chinese consider it as a perfect site to dump poisonous་nuclear wastes.
According to a Reuter report dated 10 November 1993, China was building its first radioactive waste disposal centre in the arid western province of Gansu. Further, it had planned three more in southern, southwestern and eastern China under its ambitious schemes to boost nuclear power to make up for a projected annual shortage of some 150 million tons of coal by 2000 and 1.2 billion tons by 2050. The Gansu disposal centre would have an initial disposal capacity of 60,000 cubic metres of radioactive waste, which would expand to 200,000 cubic metres. CNNC spokesman, You Deliang, said costs are estimated to be at least 100 million yuan (US$ 12.5 million).
Taiwan’s nuclear experts went to Beijing to attend a symposium billed as an “ice-breaker for atom splitters”. China offered a dumpsite for Taiwan’s stockpile of radioactive waste (Far Eastern Economic Review 25 March 1993) but, according to AFP on 28 May 1997, Taiwan snubbed the offer by China to take their 60,000 barrels of nuclear waste.

LOCAL IMPACTS
Dumping of nuclear wastes on the Tibetan Plateau will directly affect the lives of people and the health of the environment in both the short-term and over millions of years. For example, the half life (time it takes to lose half of its radioactivity) of uranium (U238) is 4,500 million years. Therefore, harmful radiation emitted is a health hazard for millions of years to come and can lead to a number of deadly diseases including cancer and leukaemia. Radioactivity also affects the DNA of living cells causing genetic disorders and deformities that can be passed from generation to generation in humans, animals and plants.
The fission of U235 produces many other radioactive isotopes, such as strontium 90, cesium 137 and barium 140. These wastes remain radioactive and dangerous for about 600 years because of the strontium and cesium isotopes.
Plutonium and others remain radioactive for a million years. Even in small amounts, plutonium can cause cancer or genetic (reproduction) damage in human beings. Larger amounts can cause radiation sickness and death. Plutonium is so carcinogenic that one pound (0.5 kg) of it evenly distributed could cause cancer in every person on earth (Caldicott 1997). Safe disposal of these radioactive wastes is one of the problems that remains unsolved by world scientists, even today.

People, Animals and Plants Contaminated

Gonpo Thondup, who escaped from Tibet to Dharamsala in India in March 1987, visited two nuclear weapons production departments code-numbered 405 in Kyangtsa and 792 in Thewo, Amdo region. His statement was presented by Tsewang Norbu at the World Uranium Hearing in Salzburg, Germany, on 14 September 1992. It reads: “The effects of experiments and waste from 792 and 405 have been devastating. Before 1960, in this region of Amdo harvests were plentiful and domestic animals healthy. Now the crop yield has shrunk and people and animals are dying mysteriously, and in increasing numbers. Since 1987 there has been a sharp rise in the number of deaths of domestic animals and fish have all but vanished. In the years of 1989 and 1990, 50 people died in the region, all from mysterious causes. Twelve women gave birth in the summer of 1990, and every child was dead before or died during birth. One Tibetan woman, Tsering Dolma (aged 30), has given birth seven times and not a single child has survived.”
Gonpo Thondup added that, “The people living near departments 405 and 792 have experienced strange diseases they have never seen before. Many local people’s skin turned yellowish and their eyesight has been affected seriously. Local populace reported strange memory losses and many babies are born deformed. The people of the area are desperate, and can only turn to religion and local doctors, who have no knowledge of the uranium mines or of the nuclear plants nearby.”
There is consistent evidence that China’s nuclear programme has caused the regular loss of human lives. According to Tibet Information Network (TIN) in a News Update of 11 September 1992, at least 35 Tibetans living near uranium mines died within a few hours after developing a high fever and distinctive diarrhoea in Ngaba region in Sichuan Province.
In 1984 villagers from Reshui and Ganzihe villages, located close to the Ninth Academy in Amdo, reported strange diseases to the Tibetan doctor, Tashi Dolma  and her medical team. However, the Chinese authorities would not allow the medical team to follow up these reports. Dr. Tashi worked at Chabcha hospital in Tsolho (Hainan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, directly south of the nuclear city (Ninth Academy), where she treated the children of nomads whose cattle grazed near the Academy. These children developed cancer which caused their white blood cell count to rise uncontrollably. An American doctor conducting research at the hospital reported that these symptoms were similar to cancers caused by radiation after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atom bombings in 1945. In addition, there have been numerous reports of unexplained deaths and illnesses amongst this nomad population in recent years.
In September 1992, the International Campaign for Tibet fact-finding team found that meat from the area had been banned from stores by the Chinese authorities. However, poor Tibetans often ate the contaminated meat, either out of ignorance or economic constraint.

TENSION BETWEEN INDIA AND CHINA
Tibet was the traditional buffer state between the two Asian giants — India and China. However, after its occupation by China, this neutral zone of peace collapsed. It escalated tension between the two, which culminated into the Sino- Indian war in 1962. China defeated the Indian army and is now occupying the Aksai Chin range in Northern India, which is claimed by India.
According to a report submitted by American author John F. Avedon to the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee on 17 September 1987, “One quarter of China’s 350-strong nuclear missile force is in Tibet.” Subsequently, the Australian Nuclear Disarmament Party in a press release on 28 October 1987 expressed its grave concern and stated that “nuclear missiles are reported to be deployed as follows: 70 mediumrange, 20 intermediate-range at Nagchuka, ICBM base at Nyingtri, Kongpo and Powo Tramo and nuclear reactors at Golino. Deployment of the above nuclear missiles in Tibet could be aimed primarily at India” (The Times of India 1988).
India has long accused China of threatening nuclear attack. This had led China’s late Prime Minister, Zhou Enlai, to respond that if China really wanted to destroy India he would gather 100 million Chinese in Tibet and order them to urinate downhill — washing India into the ocean. Zhou’s remark underlines the Himalayas’ enormous strategic importance. All of India’s great rivers rise in the Himalayas (Margolis 1997).
India’s rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, a powerful navy and tactical and medium-ranged missiles, has heightened tensions between Delhi and Beijing. Intelligence sources say India’s new intermediate-range missile, the “Agni,” has been designed to fire nuclear warheads at Chinese targets as far away as the major industrial centres of Chengdu, Lanzhou, Xian and Wuhan. A longer range 5,000 km version capable of hitting Beijing is under development. India’s security sources say “Agni” is a counter-force weapon against Chinese missiles pointed at north India from the Tibetan Plateau (Margolis 1997).
China supplied over 50 M-11 missiles to Pakistan between 1992 and 1994. It also supplied 5,000 ring magnets for the uranium enrichment facility for making nuclear bombs at Kahuta in 1995. Pakistan stored the M-11 missiles in canisters at its Sargodha airbase and has been constructing a missile factory using Chinese equipment. This illicit trade was clearly a violation by China of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty which it signed in 1992. In 1997, Pakistan announced that another missile, the Hatf-III, which is actually a Chinese M-9 had been successfully test-fired (India Today 20 April 1998).
According to Indian defence experts, China has supplied technology know-how to Pakistan to produce surface-tosurface ballistic missiles called “Ghauri”. Pakistan successfully tested its “Ghauri” missile as a counter measure to India’s “Agni” on 6 April 1998. Air Commander Jasjit Singh, Director of India’s Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis, said, “Obviously Pakistan is in the process of legitimising its missiles programme as indigenous even though it has Chinese help, ” (The Times of India 1998). The “Ghauri” missile of Pakistan is nothing but a primitive CSS-5 (DF-21) sold by China to Pakistan, reported the Indian daily The Tribune on 15 April 1998.
China is strengthening its defence by elongating runways at 11 airbases in Tibet. This will enable Chinese bombers to take off with the maximum payload possible and hit targets deep inside Indian territory. Between 1992-93 China acquired 24 Russian-made Sukhoi-27 long-range multi-role fighters. These high technology aircraft have a combat range of about 3,000 km which are much superior fighters in terms of radius of action, payload and fuel efficiency to the Indian Jaguars and Mig-27s. The former Air Chief Marshal of India, S.K. Kaul went on record to state that China posed the primary long-term strategic challenge to India (The Times of India 1996).
The Defence Minister of India, George Fernandes, has reportedly declared that China is India’s “potential threat number one” and has said that India is surrounded by Chinese military and naval activity. He further said China had its nuclear weapons stockpiled in Tibet right along India’s borders and that there had been a lot of “elongation” of military airfields in Tibet where the latest versions of Russianmade Sukhoi (SU-27) combat aircraft were going to be stationed. “And this happened in the last six months,” he added (The Tribune 4 May 1998).
India tested three nuclear devices on 11 May 1998 followed by two tests on 13 May at Pokhran in Rajasthan. Many experts believe this is in response to the Chinese military build-up on the Tibetan Plateau. The Prime Minister of India, A.B. Vajpayee, in a confidential letter addressed to the President of the United States, Bill Clinton, dated 11 May 1998 said, “We have an overt nuclear weapons state on our borders, a state (China) which committed armed aggression against India in 1962…To add to the distress that country has materially helped another neighbour of ours (Pakistan) to become a covert nuclear weapons state.” India refuted China’s condemnation of its tests by pointing out that China had already conducted 45 nuclear tests (The Times of India 18 May 1998). The tension between India and China is boiling and at an all-time high.

INTERNATIONAL ACTION
Saving the environment of the Tibetan Plateau guarantees the purity of major rivers that originate from it to form the life-blood of millions of people downstream in Asia. Chinese nuclear weapons production, nuclear tests and waste dumping endangers the lives of millions of people in Asia. Before it is too late, grassroots and international actions must be taken to educate the Chinese and global community as to the disastrous consequences of deployment of nuclear weapons and dumping of toxic nuclear waste on the Tibetan Plateau.

SOME ACTION CAMPAIGNS COULD INCLUDE:
• Writing letters to your parliamentarians, state representatives, and to the United Nations expressing concern over the nuclearisation and militarisation of the Tibetan Plateau.
• Organising street demonstrations, concerts, talks, conferences to transform Tibet into a demilitarised zone.
• Calling upon China and other nations with nuclear weapons to begin negotiations immediately on a Nuclear Weapons Convention, which would prohibit and eliminate all nuclear weapons by the next century.
• Join Abolition 2000, and other global lobbying networks, to work to to create a nuclear-free world (email: wagingpeace@napf.org).

SIX STEPS CHINA AND OTHER NUCLEAR STATES MUST TAKE TOWARDS A NUCLEAR FREE WORLD
• Pursue earnestly the goal of abolition of nuclear weapons
• Make strategic reduction of nuclear arsenals timebound
• Increase transparency and international accountability of nuclear weapons and waste
• Ban production and sale of weapons of mass destruction
• Enforce international embargoes and sanctions against treaty breakers
• Educate the public and government officials about the dangers of nuclear weapons

http://www.tibetnature.net/en/radioactive-wastes/

----------------------------------------------


India's uranium mines expose villages to radiation


25.06.2014

India plans to source a quarter of its energy from nuclear power by 2050. But this ambitious goal could come at a cost. Radioactive waste from uranium mines in the country's east is contaminating nearby communities.

http://www.dw.com/en/indias-uranium-mines-expose-villages-to-radiation/a-17730703


--------------------------------------------------


Radiation from uranium mines in Jharkhand village is crippling its children

  

 Aug 08, 2016

 

Residents of Jadugoda say that many are born with deformities, but the government denies that there is a problem. 

 

Uranium Corporation of India Limited, a public sector unit, has been scraping tons of uranium ore annually out of six mines spread across the hills in Jadugoda. Uranium mined from here is used in making fuel pellets that fire the reactors in nuclear power plants.
“Uranium-related health hazards are endemic to the area,” said Ghanshyam Birulee, president of Jharkhandi Organisation Against Radiation, a local activist group working on indigenous rights in this verdant land. The organisation was registered in 1998 and has been raising the issue of impact of radiation in this tribal belt.


Noxious waste

The mines are guarded by barbed wire and masonry walls but the plant’s tailings ponds – dug to hold the waste slurry from the plant – are not out of reach for the villagers. Villages flank the mines that hold mildly radioactive waste in the form of slurry after the production of yellow cake, a concentrate obtained during the processing of uranium ore.
Uranium Corporation of India Limited claims that it treats the slurry with lime to remove the heavy metals from it, but Birulee doubts if that can remove traces of radioactivity. In 2008, Jharkhandi Organisation Against Radiation tested water samples from around Jadugoda and found that 70% of the samples had excess heavy metals like lead and mercury in them.

https://scroll.in/article/813267/radiations-from-uranium-mines-in-jharkhand-village-are-crippling-its-children

-------------------------


Uranium Mining & Milling Industry in India


http://www-pub.iaea.org/mtcd/meetings/PDFplus/2009/cn175/URAM2009/Session%201/9_63_Gupta_India.pdf

------------------

Baseline survey of trace metals in ambient PM10 at Tummalapalle uranium mining site

 

 Oct, 2014

 

Abstract

Trace metals (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn) in PM10 were measured at 10 different sites in the surrounding areas of Tummalapalle Uranium Mining (India). The PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber/EPM 2000 filter using high volume air samplers in 10 different sampling sites during November–2010 to February–2012. Trace metals in PM10 were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP–MS). The observed trace metal concentrations varied from 0.01 to 2 640 ng/m3. It was found that metals associated with crustal sources like Al and Fe were in higher concentrations. The elements Tl, U, Cs and Co were found to be in very low concentrations. Obtained trace metal data in PM10 were subjected to statistical analyses using correlation matrices and factor analysis to examine the interrelationship between the investigated trace elements and possible source identification of the elements. Enrichment factors of trace metals were also determined to determine the anthropogenic contribution to ambient PM10. The daily intake of analyzed trace metals by the adult population in the surrounding of Tummalapalle Uranium mining (30 km radial distance) was estimated and it was found to be in the range of 1 to 13 401 ng/day through the inhalation route.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1309104215302671


-------------------

Screening for Strontium accumulator plants in the vicinity of
Tummalapalle uranium mining site Kadapa District, A.P, India


2015

http://www.ipublishing.co.in/ijesarticles/fourteen/articles/volsix/EIJES6005.pdf

----------------------

Villages around Tummalapalle uranium mines hit by water, soil pollution


Dec 3, 2016

HYDERABAD: The quality of water in uranium-rich Tummalapalle and surrounding villages in Kadapa district has deteriorated with high levels of heavy and trace metals. Researchers suggest that the state government should immediately initiate remedial measures to prevent further deterioration of the environment. 

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hyderabad/Villages-around-Tummalapalle-uranium-mines-hit-by-water-soil-pollution/articleshow/55764521.cms

----------------------

India uranium mining fuels health crisis

 

 August 2014

 

Radioactive waste generated in three government owned mines spurs health fears in eastern Jharkhand state.


http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/08/india-uranium-mining-sparks-crisis-2014810113718812574.html



-----------------------------------


 Seasonal Variation of Air Quality and CAQI at
Tummalapalle Uranium Mining Site and
Surrounding Villages


 2014

 The air quality levels of Tummalapalle Uranium mining site is studied using Combined Air
Quality Index (CAQI) and Z – score. Samples of PM10, TSP, SOx and NOx were collected
by installing high volume samplers at Ten locations of Tummalapalle Uranium Mining site
and  its  surrounding  villages.  The  locations  are  selected  based  on  the  wind  roses  and
these  are  classified  as  core  zone,  buffer  zone  –  1 and  buffer  zone  –  2,  based  on  radial
distance  from  the  mining  site.  The  samples  were  collected  twice  a  month  during
November  -  2010  to  February  –  2012,  of  all  the  seasons  i.e.,  winter,  summer  and
monsoon.  The  CAQI  has  been  estimated  to  assess  the air  pollution  in  ten  selected
sampling locations using concentrations of four common pollutants (PM10, TSP, SOx and NOx). The spatial concentration distributions of pollutants were standardized by means of Z - scores to avoid any effects of unity scale on the distance measurements.  These Z – scores are used to assess the air quality in three spatial zones (core zone, buffer zone – 1 and buffer zone – 2). The evaluated CAQI values for all the three seasons are varying in the  range  of  20–50  at  all  the  sampling  locations.  T
he  CAQI  values  indicate  moderate  air pollution  at  the  locations  of  UCIL–Mining  site  and
Tummalapalle  during  winter  and summer seasons. This is also supported by the high Z–scores obtained for the core zone containing these two locations.



http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/29630/18/18_publication%203.pdf

-----------------------------------


Andhra uranium mining project gives locals short shrift


October 2006

Widespread resistance to a new uranium mine and processing plant in his long-time Pulivendula assembly constituency in Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh has come as a shock to chief minister Y S Rajasekhara Reddy. People from his pocket borough have dug in against his pet project a 26.79-million tonne uranium mining project in Tummalapalle village. Particularly at issue are the strong-arm measures employed to ram it down the throats of the people.

A public hearing conducted by the Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (appcb) for environmental clearance at the 300-household village, Tummalapalle, on September 10 turned out to be a farce hundreds of people from the four affected villages who opposed the project were chased away from the venue. Rapid Action Force personnel were deployed in force since the morning along all routes leading to the venue to scare away protestors.

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/andhra-uranium-mining-project-gives-locals-short-shrift-8486

-----------------------------------


Nalgonda Uranium Mining, Andhra Pradesh, India


Description

Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) plans Uranium mining project in Lambapur and Peddagutta villages in P.A. Pally mandal of Nalgonda district in Andhra Pradesh. It is estimated that there are an estimated 11.02 million tonnes of uranium reserves spread over 1,326 acres, including a part of the Rajiv Gandhi Tiger reserve sanctuary. The proposal to set up a hydro-metallurgical plant was reportedly accepted by a high-level technical committee [1]. The Andhra Pradesh government announced that the government supports that the proposed mining of uranium and setting up of a refinery plant in Nalgonda district. Government also assured in the state legislative Assembly that all environmental safeguards would be taken before giving the final permission [2] The announcement made by the government drew criticism from members of all the Opposition parties. This includes Telegu Dedham Party and the Left Parties. Opposing the proposed uranium mining, the members expressed the apprehension that radioactive material would contaminate Krishna river water and expose people in the surrounding areas as well as those living in Hyderabad to serious health hazards [2]. It may be noted that the proposed mines are just 1 km from human habitation, hardly 10 km from Nagarjunsagar dam and barely 4 km from Akkampalli reservoir [4] It is observed that there are traces of uranium content were at much higher levels in Osman Sagar (5.8 micro grams per litre), Himayat Sagar (7.8 micro grams per litre) and Hussain Sagar (20.0 micro grams per litre) than in the Nagarjuna Sagar dam where the level is within the limits at 2 micro grams per litre as prescribed by the Atomic Energy Commission [1]. Experts charge the UCIL is not careful about the possible contamination of water bodies located in the area. Even the citizens of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, who have been drinking water from Himayat Sagar and Osman Sagar lakes would have been more prone to radiation-related hazards than the people of Nalgonda [1].

https://ejatlas.org/conflict/nalgonda-uranium-mining-andhra-pradesh-india

------------------------------------

Uranium deposits found in Rajasthan


In a boost to its indigenous nuclear power programme, India has discovered large uranium deposits at Rohil in Rajasthan’s Sikar district.
The uranium ore deposits at Rohil Central are estimated at 5,185 tonnes but of a low grade, officials said.
At 5,185 tonnes, the deposits are considered to be significant and the fourth largest in the country after Tummalapalle, Chitrial and Peddagattu extension in Andhra Pradesh.
The adjoining Rohil North region has 381 tonnes of uranium ore.
“It is only an initial find. We need more extensive surveys all along to know the width and the depth of the find,” Atomic Energy Commission Chairman R K Sinha told PTI.
Sinha said the Department was investing heavily on exploration of uranium across the country and had augmented its reserves by 50 per cent in the 11th Plan period.
As of June this year, the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research has established 1.84 lakh tonnes of uranium ore resources across the country.
The Uranium Corporation of India Limited has mining operations at Bagjata, Jaduguda, Bhatin, Narwapahar, Mohuldih, Tummalapalle, Turamdih underground mines and Banduhurang opencast mines. It also runs two processing plants at Jaduguda and Turamdih.
At present, India operates 20 nuclear power plants at six sites across the country which have the capacity to generate 4,780 MW of electricity.
Of the 20 nuclear power plants in operation in the country, 10 use imported uranium while the rest use domestic fuel.

http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/uranium-deposits-found-in-rajasthan/article3836119.ece

------------------------------------

Groundwater contaminated, Punjab battles uranium curse


  July 13, 2012

The high incidence of cancer and other diseases in Punjab’s Malwa belt has been highlighted over the last decade. Now, union Rural Development Minister Jairam Ramesh has confirmed the presence of uranium and other heavy metals in groundwater in the state, particularly the Malwa region, and serious efforts are afoot to control the damage.
The worst affected is southwest Punjab’s fertile Malwa belt -- the area south of the river Sutlej -- comprising the districts of Mansa, Bathinda, Moga, Faridkot, Barnala, Sangrur and some parts of Ludhiana.
Ramesh, during a visit here last week, admitted that substantial quantities of uranium, arsenic, mercury and other heavy metals had been found in the tested samples of groundwater in Punjab.
“The level of uranium in the ground water is 50 percent over the WHO norms. The source of this is not yet known. Punjab is the only state to have uranium in its water,” Mr. Ramesh said.
Of the 2,462 samples of water collected from tube wells across Punjab, 1,140 samples had tested positive for the presence of uranium and arsenic...


http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/medicine-and-research/groundwater-contaminated-punjab-battles-uranium-curse/article3635131.ece

------------------------------------

Uranium and other heavy toxic elements distribution in the drinking water samples of SW-Punjab, India


 January 2017

 

Abstract

In the present investigations, Laser Fluorimetry technique has been used for the microanalysis of uranium content in drinking water samples collected from different sources like the hand pumps, tube wells of various depths from wide range of locations in the four districts of SW-Punjab, India. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uranium concentration levels of ground water being used for drinking purposes and to determine its health effects, if any, to the local population of this region. Corresponding radiological and chemical risks have also been calculated for the uranium concentrations in ground water samples. Some other heavy elements have also been analysed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. In this region, uranium concentration in 498 drinking water samples has been found to vary between 0.5–579 μgl−1with an average of 73.5 μgl−1. Data analysis revealed that 338 of 498 samples had uranium concentration higher than recommended safe limit of 30 μgl−1 (WHO, 2011) while 216 samples exceeded the threshold of 60 μgl−1 recommended by AERB, DAE, India, 2004.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1687850715000035

-------------------------------------

Uranium mine waste imperils villages in Jaduguda


15 March 2008

 Radioactive waste from three government-owned uranium mines has put about 50,000 people in Jharkhand's Jaduguda at risk. The people, mostly tribal communities, suffer from serious radiation-related health problems. But the mines in East Singhbhum district continue without adequate safety measures.

On studying more than 9,000 people (over 2,000 houses) in five villages near the mines owned by the Uranium Corporation of India Limited (ucil), researchers found cases of congenital deformities, sterility, spontaneous abortions and cancer were alarmingly high among the villagers, mostly from the Ho, Santhal, Munda and Mahali tribes.

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/uranium-mine-waste-imperils-villages-in-jaduguda-4306

------------------------------------

STATEMENT REFERRED TO IN REPLY TO RAJYA SABHA STARRED QUESTION NO.280 FOR ANSWER ON 30.08.2012 BY SHRI PRABHAT JHA, SHRI ARVIND KUMAR SINGH, SHRIMATI KUSUM RAI REGARDING URANIUM IN GROUND WATER.

(a)
Yes, Sir. Due to its natural occurrence, uranium is present in all environmental
matrices such as water, soil, sediment, food materials and biota. On a global
basis, its concentration in soil varies from 1-
5 parts per million (ppm) while in water
it varies from 1-3 parts per billion (ppb). The uranium content in water, which is in
contact with granite rocks, isrelatively high. 
(b)
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has carried out study for uranium content
in groundwater and analysed the uranium content of 1109 number of water samples
collected from four districts
of Punjab (Bhatinda, Mansa, Faridkot and Ferozpur) in
collaboration with Guru Nanak Dev University (GNDU), Amritsar. The results of the
study reveal that about 42% of total samples have Uranium concentration above the
Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) permissible(radiological) limit (60 ppb) for
drinking water.
Hydrogeochemical survey is one of the tools for survey and exploration for
concealed uranium deposits, wherein uranium content in ground water is assessed.
Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration & Research (AMD)
being an exploration agency for identifying natural resources of uranium, frequently utilise this technique. In general, U content recorded by AMD in ground water samples
from different parts of India, where AMD is engaged in survey and exploration, are
in the range of <1–100 ppb, with occasional values upto 5840 ppb. Such
anomalously high values are recorded generally in granitic terrains. It may be
clarified that the areas surveyed by AMD are in remote parts of India, where human
population is minimal.


Uranium content recorded in ground water in areas where AMD has carried out
such studies in the recent past is as listed below:

                      Location                  State                         U (ppb)
1 Didwana andSinghiTalab,    |    Rajasthan       |          17-1755
          Nagaur District
2 Bap-Malar playa, Bikaner,         |   Rajasthan   |          8-25
Jodhpur and Jaisalmer Districts

3 Popawas-Ghatiyala-Keru           |  Rajasthan   |      <1-170
Sector, Jodhpur and Pali districts

4 Hurra Ki Dhani, Sikar      |     Rajasthan        |         <1-44

5 Daurala, Sikar            |     Rajasthan        |        556-5100

6 Mahendragarh district    |    Haryana    |              2-2936
7 Una district         |     Himachal Pradesh    |         2-80

8 Phalodi-Lohawat,   |   Rajasthan      |       4-29
Jodhpur district

9 Jabera-Selwara-     |   Madhya Pradesh   |     <1-330
Katangi, Damoh and
Jabalpur districts

10 Piparia-Kalan,   |     Madhya Pradesh    |      <1-4500
Seoni district

11 Pongar, Seoni district   |   Madhya Pradesh   |   <1-4285

12 MedhaDhana, Betul district   |   Madhya Pradesh    |    <1-5198

13 Thumpani, Bastar district   |    Chhattisgarh    |     <1-57

14 Sukma, Dantewada district   |   Chhattisgarh  |    <1-820

15 Vishnupali, Raigarh district    |   Chhattisgarh   |   <1-400
16 Sajjaldine-Siregepalle,   |     Andhra Pradesh    |    1-195
          Kadappa district

17 Chenchalapalle-                |   Andhra Pradesh    |     2-5840
Mulapalle, Kadappa district

18 Chandragiri-Tirupati-           |  Andhra Pradesh   |    <1-984
        Nayudupet area,
Chittoor and Nellore districts

19 Sedam, Gulbarga disirict   |   Karnataka   |   18-271
20 Kallur, Gulbarga disirict   |   Karnataka   |   <1-25
21 Kurgunta, Gulbarga disirict   |   Karnataka   |   112-474
22 Karankot, Gulbarga disirict   |   Karnataka   |   27-508
23 Kanasgeri-Malamatti-    |     Karnataka   |   <2-14
      Vantamuri-Mallapur,
      Beglaum district

24 Raigarh and Mahasamund   |  Chhattisgarh   |   <1-164
           districts

25 Kattukottai-Gangavalli-    |   Tamil Nadu   |   <1-12
      Uppiliapuram, Salem
     and Tiruchirapalli district

26 Kenda-Jitujori-Amghata-            |   West Bengal   |   <1-210
Puncha-Hura area, Purulia district


In addition, AMD has carried out preliminary hydrogeochemical
studies on 165 number of random water samples collected from areas around Bhatinda, Mansa, Faridkot and Firozpur districts of Punjab, which indicated <1 to 270ppb U, with 14 samples having U values higher than 60 ppb.

http://www.dae.nic.in/writereaddata/rssq280.pdf

--------------------------------------



The half-life of Kokbahal village

 

 

 

Rusted handpumps, ruins of houses and cases of radioactive poisoning are all that remain of attempts to extract uranium deposits in a Chhattisgarh village


http://www.business-standard.com/article/beyond-business/the-half-life-of-kokbahal-village-113112800770_1.html

---------------------------------------


Paradise Lost – Indigenous tribes in Jharkhand fight against uranium mines (Tarun Kanti Bose and P.T. George)


24/01/2014

 Sixty-five year old Siyaram Besra was born in the Dhodanga village of India's East Singhbhum District and has been living here all his life. But now he feels that his future is very bleak. A uranium mine and mill are very close to his village and the mining and dumping has reached the edge of his hamlet. The sound of blasting echoes in the mountains and disturbs the serenity and peace that he had experienced all his life.

The uranium mine waste rocks are carelessly dumped on to the paddy fields and grazing grounds, a few metres from his home where he sits all day. He is frail and sick. Doctors say he has tuberculosis and have been giving him medicines for that. He says the medicines have not helped cure his illness. Unable to do any work, he quietly sits on the verandah of his hut and stares blankly.

https://www.wiseinternational.org/nuclear-monitor/776/paradise-lost-%E2%80%93-indigenous-tribes-jharkhand-fight-against-uranium-mines-tarun

---------------------------------------

Korba: how the power hub of Chhattisgarh became a pollution hub


 25 July 2017

 The Central Pollution Control Board has ranked Korba, in Chhattisgarh, fifth in the ‘critically polluted area’ category. It is time thermal power companies wake up to pollution control mandates to avoid an environmental disaster in the region...

https://yourstory.com/2017/07/power-hub-chhattisgarh-becomes-pollution-hub/

---------------------------------------

 Uranium Mining in Meghalaya:
 Simmering Problem


There is intense opposition to the uranium mining project
in the West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. Yet the state
government and central institutions in charge of nuclear
energy are intent upon continuing with the project.

http://www.princeton.edu/~ramana/UraniumMining-Meghalaya.pdf


----------------------------------------

Uranium in food, water in Bathinda


 July 2009

 Granite in Haryana a possible source

uranium has contaminated milk, wheat, pulses and water in Bathinda district in Punjab, a study by scientists of Amritsar's Guru Nanak Dev University has found. Of the 22 villages the study covered, three villages, Giana, Malkana and Jajjal, had very high uranium traces (see box). The daily intake of uranium in food, excluding water, was highest at Giana at 41.09 g and with water it was 138.41 g. The acceptable limit of uranium in dietary intake is 5 g per day.

"The uranium traces are because of groundwater contamination," said Surinder Singh Parmar, the supervisor of the study. The groundwater could have been contaminated by granite found in Tusham hills in Bhiwani, Haryana. Granite contains radioactive metals like uranium. "There is some granite that lies exposed in Bhiwani but most of it is underground and spreads to Rajasthan and Punjab as well.Since it is underground, only the groundwater gets contaminated. If it were above the surface, the soil and air too would be contaminated," he said.

The university will study adjoining Mansa, Mukhtsar and Faridkot districts in Punjab and Hissar and Fatehabad districts in Haryana. "Hissar and Fatehabad lie between Bathinda and Bhiwani and are also likely to have high groundwater contamination," Parmar said. There is reason for concern, he added, because chemical toxicity of uranium causes damage to the internal organs. It causes kidney problems and cancer. "The villages in Bathinda have a high incidence of cancer," he said.

The study also provides a lead to a probable source of the uranium traces among autistic and mentally retarded children in the Baba Farid Centre for Special Children in Faridkot. Uranium was found in the hair samples of the children (see 'Uranium traces in Punjab children', Down To Earth, April 30, 2009).

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/uranium-in-food-water-in-bathinda-3580


---------------------------------------------------------


Will Kolar become India's nuclear waste dumpyard?


November 2012



Centre plans to dump hazardous waste from Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in Tamil Nadu in the disused mines at Kolar Gold Fields (Credit: indiacurrentaffairs.org)

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/will-kolar-become-indias-nuclear-waste-dumpyard-39658

--------------------------------

India: Toxic Hotspot of Uranium & Nuclear Wastes



Last year Asian giant has made significant increase of 17.6 percent over the previous amount of defence budget for 2011-12. Her defence budget for 2012-13, was US $40.3 billion for the Defence Services that include the three armed forces (Army, Navy and Air Force), the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Ordnance Factories.
The major portion of the Civil Estimate is however accounted for by defence pensions, which amounts to $8.1 billion in 2012-13. If we include it in the allocated budget then total defence budget would be $49.6 billion.
Increase in defence spending has posed direct threat to China and Pakistan. India is maintaining one of the of the top militaries of the world, She has 3.8 million troops being the 2nd largest army on earth, 4th largest air force in the world, and 5th Largest Navy in the world, The Indian Armed Forces also have a large Coast Guard but the rank is not known. Ultimately, India’s Militaries strength is 3rd ranking in the world.

According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, India has developed nuclear warheads which can be launched on strategically and tactically vital targets from land, sea and air. She is also holding over 100 nuclear bombs and conducted 17 missile tests this year to prove her supremacy in Asia.
Notably, India is running 22 nuclear, chemical and Biological plants for hegemonic design in addition of spending huge amount on arms and aircraft purchases’ deals with U.S. and Russia.
But unfortunately, Indian top brass failed to take measures of stopping gas leakage, uranium theft cases and disposal of nuclear wastes. In fact, self-styled ‘Shining India’ is portraying a false image of exemplary patriotism, largest democracy and prosperity, whereas the UN reports reveal


that nearly 69% of the Indians are living under $2 PPP a day. Moreover, most of the people living surrounding areas nuclear plants are facing horrible nuclear pollution and demanding shifting and closing of these plants. In this regard, Indian doctors and scientists from various parts of the country have attended three-day Punjab Science Congress Bathinda, in the second week of February of this year. According to the Indian media, some scientists were of the opinion that all the three major types of toxicity —chemical, radiation and biological — were rampant in Punjab. They said that the adverse effects of toxicity on animals and humans are visible and some studies have proved this. Dr SS Gill, Vice Chancellor, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences (BFUHS) has also confirmed the spresence of uncontrolled chemical, radiation & biological toxicity in thickly populated “Punjab”.
In this connection a top German laboratory revealed that hair samples of 80% of 149 neurologically-disabled children, mainly from Malwa region, had high levels of uranium, a study by Greenpeace suggested that all the three major types of toxicity — chemical, radiation and biological.? Among villages with high levels of nitrate pollution in drinking water is Doda, a village of Gidderbaha, the constituency of Punjab’s finance minister Manpreet Badal. ‘Anti-pollution laws only on paper in Punjab’
Bathinda: The fertile state of Punjab now battles grave chemical toxicity. Gidderbaha, the constituency of finance minister Manpreet Badal, is known for high prevalence of cancer cases. Two water samples in Doda found the nitrate levels at 94.3 mg/l and 72.8 mg/l, much above the WHO safety limit of 50 mg/l.
In Muktsar, the home district of Punjab CM Parkash Singh Badal, a state health department survey revealed that 1,074 people died of cancer between 2001 and November 2009 and 668 others are on their deathbed. In Lambi, the home constituency of Badal, 211 residents lost their lives and 164 got afflicted with cancer in the last eight years, revealed health department survey report.
Earlier too, on August 23, 2012 global nuclear experts went into shock after reading the Indian national auditors’ report on India’s nuclear safety and declared that Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), a weak regularity body. Indian Comptroller and Auditor General have also confirmed the auditor’s report and warned a Fukushima or Chernobyl-like disaster, if the nuclear safety issue is not addressed by the government. IAEA, an independent regularity authority is one of the report also mentioned “out of the 168 standards, codes and guides identified by AERB for development under various thematic areas, 27 safety documents still remained to be developed. The report said off-site emergency exercises highlighted the inadequate emergency preparedness to deal with situations involving radiological effects from a nuclear power plant which may extend to public areas. It is also a matter of concern that approach road to the plant site of Tarapur Atomic Power Station was highly congested, which would pose serious problems in dealing with any future emergency.
Nevertheless, on 28 February, 2012 an expert committee appointed by the Tamil Nadu government on submitted its report on the safety aspects of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNNP) to Chief Minister Jayalalithaa, marking a crucial stage in the debate over the project.

Precisely, commenting the major incident in nukes pants, theft cases of enriched Uranium, murdering and harassing of nuclear staff by intelligence agency and leakage of gases are in increase. Reportedly, because of poor safety and security arrangement on May 14 2010, another incident of poor radiation security green place radiation experts have identified eight hotspots in New Delhi Mayapuri area which have 5000 times the natural background radiation defined as safe by the department of atomic energy. In this incident one individual died and eleven others were injured. The nukes experts always have shown strong concern over Indian poor safety and nuke arrangements on the nuclear plants and handlers. In this reared New Delhi never paid heed to IAEA concerns over nukes safety and security. Almost 160 cases of theft, loss and misplacement of radioactive source have been registered in the local police. In April 2007 a radiography Camera stolen from Jadadishphir near Lucknow could not be found till to date. In November 2009, fifty five employees consumed radioactive material after titrated founded its way into the drinking water cooler in Kaiga Nuclear plant in Karnataka. The leakage of 4-14 tones of heavy water from the pipes at madras atomic processing plant in Tamil Nadu. Six workers have been exposed to high doses of radioactive radiation.
Indian police found dead body of the nuclear scientist, Lokanathan Mahalingam from Kali River in Jun 2009. The scientist was in possession of highly sensitive / classified information. Anantha Narayanan, a scientific working in the computer department of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam is missing since Feb 2010. A 48 year old Madhadevan lyer, scientist of the BARC was found dead in his official residence in Feb 2010. Reportedly, all these scientists and employees have been killed as result of RAW’s torture.
Mr. Thirumala Prasad Thenka, a scientist of Raja Ramanna Centre for Advance Technology (RRCAT) committed suicide by hanging himself on 12 Apr 2010. On 28 April 2010, Delhi Police traces Cobalt – 60 to DU Chemistry Department. Coming back to the current report, the most serious problems relate to ensure the safe use of radiation in medical and industrial facilities across India. In this context, the AERB was ordered by the Supreme Court in 2001 to set up radiation safety directorates in 35 administrative areas, but by July 2012 it had achieved this in only two. The AERB has never set out standard inspection periods for radiation facilities and the comptroller’s report noted an 85% shortfall in inspections at industrial radiography and radiotherapy units, compared to IAEA norms. For diagnostic radiobiology facilities the shortfall was “over 97%”. There is no detailed inventory of radioactive sources to help ensure safe disposal and no “proper mechanism” to check the safe disposal of radioactive waste. It is also worth mentioning here that the Indian state nuclear establishment has not drawn on the services of the IAEA to peer-review its regulatory system and comment on its effectiveness.
Indian scientists and authorities are lacking expertise in handling sensitive and dangerous material related to nukes and gases. IAEA should send some team to inspect the plants for saving Asian masses form nuclear pollution since India has become a Toxic Hotspot of Uranium & Nuclear Wastes.


http://www.dianuke.org/india-toxic-hotspot-of-uranium-nuclear-wastes/

--------------------------------


More uranium reserves found in Kadapa mine, to last till 2050


 Jan 20, 2017

 KADAPA: Tummalapalle village in Kadapa district hosts more uranium reserves than believed. Researchers have now found uranium reserves buried at 1,000 metres in the earth at Tummalapalle and surrounding areas. Earlier, uranium reserves were found only up to a depth of about 250 metres. The finding could mean that the Tummalapalle uranium mine may last beyond 2050. The present reserves are expected to last between 20 and 30 years depending on the quantum of uranium oxide ore excavated per year.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/vijayawada/more-uranium-reserves-found-in-kadapa-mine-to-last-till-2050/articleshow/56681218.cms

----------------------------------

 A silent horror in our midst

 Apr 2011

 Radioactive hazards are not confined to our nuclear plants. They are everywhere, including Sterlite’s copper smelter, due to lax regulators, says Nityanand Jayaraman

 LAST JANUARY, Australia declined India’s request for uranium supply citing non-proliferation concerns. But in the 20 months ending September 2010, Australia had supplied at least 2.2 tonnes of uranium to India as part of copper concentrates it exported to Sterlite Industries’ controversial copper smelter in Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu. Tainted with up to 60 parts per million of uranium, these concentrates came with a contamination discount for the buyer. Sterlite saved more than $1.15 million by opting to import radioactive ore. The company has been importing concentrate since 1995.

These imports and handling of uranium- tainted concentrates, and the subsequent emissions from the copper smelter to air, water and land are not on the radar of Indian regulatory agencies. The exports don’t seem to have Australia’s authorisation either. In 2007, Australian miner BHP Billiton sought the government’s permission to export uranium-tainted copper concentrates to China. No such permission seems to have been sought for exports to India.

At a time when the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan is focussing our fly-like attention spans to the dangers of the nuclear cycle, the above anecdote suggests that more than just the dangers of radiation, we should be fearful of the lax enforcement of regulation in this country.

http://archive.tehelka.com/story_main49.asp?filename=Ne230411SILENT.asp

-----------------------------------

Uranium in groundwater in India: A review

 Abstract

Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive element that is both radiologically and chemically toxic. However, the chemical toxicity of natural uranium is much more pronounced than its radiological toxicity. The average concentration of uranium in the Earth's crust is 2.7%. The main source of uranium is granitic rocks though type other rocksuch as volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic also contain uranium in trace amounts. Apart from the natural sources various anthropogenic activities viz. use of phosphate fertiliser, nuclear industry, mill tailings and combustion of coal are also responsible for uranium contamination in the environment. Excess intake of uranium in drinking water leads to several diseases like kidney damage, multi-organ targeted cancers, brain and neurological disorders etc. In India ground water is mostly used for agricultural and drinking purposes. Uranium levels vary from region to region depending on the geological, geochemical and hydrological conditions. There is an unevenness in the concentration of uranium in groundwaters of India due to the various type of geological formations. To get an overview of the concentration variation a review has been carried out in some selected states of India. According to Yadav et al., (2008) an uraniferous horizon has a higher uranium concentration than the WHO and USEPA limits of 15 and 60 μgL−1 respectively in drinking water. Some studies also have been focused on the assessment of consumption of uranium at higher than the permissible limits. Main objective of this overview is to figure out theuranium contamination scenario inground waters in selected parts of Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh where ground water contains a higher concentration of uranium than the permissible limit and hence not fit for drinking purposes and the various possible sources for contamination of uranium in ground water.

http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:jag&volume=19&issue=2&article=003


----------------------------------------------------

What happened to the Rs 60 lakh crore thorium scam?


Apr 28, 2014

 A few years ago, a story appeared in the Indian press that a massive scam involving the illegal mining and covert export of thorium was taking place in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Then, two things happened: one, the story died out quickly without anyone investigating it further (but repeating the allegations over and over again), and two, many just assumed it was true. Given the opacity of the Indian state, particularly in matters involving nuclear materials, there is a tendency for suspicions to become allegations and allegations to become guilty verdicts. In an era of scams, government denials made little difference to the public discourse.

http://www.dnaindia.com/analysis/standpoint-what-happened-to-the-rs-60-lakh-crore-thorium-scam-1982959

------------------------------------


Assessment of sources for higher Uranium concentration in ground waters of the Central Tamilnadu, India


Abstract

The uranium concentration in groundwater has attained greater importance considering the health effects in mankind. Groundwater being the major source of uranium; sampling and analysis of groundwater for the major cations and anions along with uranium has been carried out in hard rock aquifers of Madurai district. The sampling has been carried out in varied aquifers like, Charnockites, Hornblende Biotite Gneiss, Granites, Quartzites, Laterites and sandstone. The cation and anions showed the following order of dominance Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and that of anions are HCO3 ->Cl->SO4 2-> NO3 ->PO4 3-. Higher concentration of uranium was found along the granitic aquifers and it varied along the groundwater table condition. Further it was identified that the mineral weathering was the predominant source of U in groundwater. Tritium studies also reveal the fact that the younger waters are more enriched in uranium than the older groundwater with longer residence time.

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/121/1/012009


------------------------------------------------

Villagers oppose uranium mining, proposed nuclear plant at Gogi

  
February 17, 2017 

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/Villagers-oppose-uranium-miningproposed-nuclear-plant-at-Gogi/article17314926.ece

-----------------------------

An Underground Radioactive Waste Laboratory Coming Up In Gogi Village In Yadgir District Of Karnataka

 05 March, 2015

http://www.countercurrents.org/makkolil050314.htm

----------------------------


India's Underground Radioactive Waste Disposal site at Gogi in Karnataka?


February 2015


Abstract
India's department of atomic energy (DAE) is facing some minor roadblocks in its march towards the national goal of self reliance in energy. The problems at the front-end of the nuclear fuel chain,-the shortage of economically viable deposit and the resistance of the first people and the farmers against land acquisition-are well known. The efforts of the scientists to solve the back-end problem, the final disposal of high level radioactive waste in a deep geological repository (DGR), are not known outside DAE. It takes 30 years for siting, evaluation, construction and licensing of a DGR and India must have one in place by 2030. As the first step, a small underground research laboratory (URL) is built, which can be later expanded to a full-fledged DGR. This report, focussing on the back-end problem, is in two parts. The first part is a brief description of DGR/URL, safety requirements, practices followed internationally and DAE's efforts towards this end. The second part begins with a description of the proposed URL at Gogi in Karnataka state, which also has some uranium reserve. After the extensive drilling since 1999 and exploratory uranium mining since 2007, the Gogi villagers started complaining of various illnesses, which they attributed to the contamination of water due to mining. The findings of a DAE funded study that water from Gogi village was unfit for human consumption due to high radioactivity was not communicated to the local people or the government and no follow-up action has been taken so far. In the concluding section we outline the remedial measures and research to be done in Gogi village and offer our suggestions for setting up a DGR in India as this is the only reference solution available.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13530-017-0305-5


----------------------------




Assessment of bacterial community composition in response to uranium levels in sediment samples of sacred Cauvery River.

 

Global industrialization is a major cause of effluent discharge from industries up to alarming concentrations. Especially, uranium concentrations in water bodies are of great concern, as its radioactivity significantly affects the persistent diversity of microbiota. Recently, continuous application of pesticides in the agricultural lands and accumulation of quartz that enter the Cauvery River has significantly increased the concentration of uranium (U) and other heavy metals. To perceive the impact of uranium on bacterial diversity in Cauvery River, sediment samples collected from polluted (UP) site with 32.4 Bq/K of U concentration and control (UNP) site were scrutinized for bacterial diversity through metagenomic analysis of the V3 region of 16S rDNA by Illumina sequencing. Taxonomic assignment revealed that the unpolluted sample was dominated by Bacteroidetes (27.7 %), and Firmicutes (25.9 %), while sediment sample from the highly polluted site revealed abundance of Proteobacteria (47.5 %) followed by Bacteroidetes (22.4 %) and Firmicutes (14.6 %). Among Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria was the most prevalent group followed by alpha, delta, epsilon, and beta in the uranium-polluted sample. Rare and abundant species analysis revealed that species like Idiomarina loihiensis was abundant in the pollutant sample; however, it was rare (<0.1 %) in the sample from pristine environment. Similarly, the species distribution in both the samples varied, with the bacteria potentially active in redox activity and biosorption potential dominating in the polluted sample. Outcomes of the present study demonstrated the impact of uranium and metal accumulation on the bacterial communities and further confirmed the promising candidature of specific bacterial species as bioindicators of contamination.

http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/27812801

----------------------------


Pakistan has 1,000 uranium reserves: report

April 14, 2007

 Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has claimed to have discovered around 1,000 uranium favourable sites, which could provide the required fuel for its proposed nuclear power plants...        

http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/apr/14pak.htm


-----------------------------

India–Kazakhstan relations


India is working towards the development of its civilian nuclear energy industry as a clean alternative to satisfy its huge energy needs. Since Kazakhstan has plenty of the uranium required for nuclear energy, India is developing a strong relationship with Kazakhstan. India invited the Kazakh President for the Republic Day celebrations in New Delhi, in January 2009.


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India%E2%80%93Kazakhstan_relations
--

-----------------------------------------------



Major uranium reserves found in Srisailam forests


Jul 23, 2015

 HYDERABAD: India's plan for a 'strategic uranium reserve' received a shot in the arm with a joint research team of the city-headquartered Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD) and Osmania University discovering significant quantity of uranium reserves in the Srisailam forests...

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Major-uranium-reserves-found-in-Srisailam-forests/articleshow/48181983.cms

----------------------------------

Uranium mining gets nod in Amrabad tiger reserve


 Dec 7, 2016,

HYDERABAD: The Department of Atomic Energy is likely to begin exploration for uranium deposits in Amrabad tiger reserve following an approval of a exploration proposal by the State Board for Wildlife here on Tuesday...

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hyderabad/Uranium-mining-gets-nod-in-Amrabad-tiger-reserve/articleshow/55846278.cms

---------------------------------------

Uranium contamination threatens Nalgonda water


May 7, 2014


Hyderabad: Researchers assessing the pre-mining contamination of the environment at Nalgonda have found high levels of Uranium contamination in the groundwater and fair levels of gamma radiation, which will increase drastically once mining commences.
About 41 per cent of the groundwater samples collected from sample sites in Nalgonda were found to have contamination levels higher than permitted. Scientists say the Krishna river water and Nagarjunasagar will not be affected by the mining activity, although activists vehemently dispute it...

http://www.deccanchronicle.com/140507/nation-current-affairs/article/uranium-contamination-threatens-nalgonda-water

---------------------------------------

Issues at Jaduguda Uranium Mine, Jharkhand, India


3 Apr 2017


Current Issues

Suspended Jaduguda uranium mine obtains forest department clearance

BJP MP Bidyut Baran Mahato today said Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL), which recently got approval from the Central forest department, will soon commence mining activities in Jadugora near here.
Mahato, who had earlier held several rounds of meeting with top forest department officials and Union Environment Minister Anil Madhav Dave had recently met the forest officials. "The forest department after a meeting with forest advisory committee gave the nod last week," Mahato said at a press conference. A lease for 50 years has also been granted to the oldest uranium mine, he said. Asked when the mining will start, Mahato said, the file related to lease renewal of Jadugora mine is with the Union Environment Minister who is likely to give his approval in the next few days. Mining activities had come to a standstill after the lease licence expired in September, 2014. (Business Standard Apr. 3, 2017)
http://www.wise-uranium.org/umopjdg.html

----------------------------------------

Dying kids in Jharkhand’s Jadugora, uranium mines and a mystery

 

 Jul 09 2014

What’s causing the wasting diseases that are deforming so many children in the hub of India’s uranium mining industry?


http://www.livemint.com/Politics/XIPI9uChfRaHeKpFu2GhiK/Dying-kids-in-Jhakhands-Jadugora-uranium-mines-and-a-myste.html

----------------------------------------


Uranium waste contaminates water in Jharkhand


 Jun 8, 2013

Reckless dumping of radioactive waste in Jharkhand is contaminating surface and ground water, putting thousands of locals at risk of developing cancer, according to a report by independent researchers.
The Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL), a subsidiary of the Department of Atomic Energy, supplies uranium (yellow cake) to nuclear power plants in the country. It mines and processes uranium at seven mines in Jharkhand’s Jaduguda area. According to atomic experts, sludge and waste from uranium mines has to be scientifically disposed of as it contains around 85% radioactive substances.

http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-uranium-waste-contaminates-water-in-jharkhand-1845207

----------------------------------------


Leaking Jaduguda mine poses radioactive risk: US report


Dec 2015

NEW DELHI: A Washington-based news organisation on Monday released a report that claims radioactive and toxic waste have been leaking out of India's oldest and most important uranium mine, affecting people, livestock, rivers, forests and agricultural produce in the area.

The report, which also appeared in a US news website, accuses India's nuclear establishment of systematically overlooking evidence that points to a radiation hazard at the Jaduguda uranium mine in Jharkhand's East Singhbhum district.

The state-owned Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) has been operating the mine since 1967, extracting around 1,000 tonnes of uranium ore per day, which accounts for 20% of the raw material for India's nuclear power generation. It has, however, remained closed since September 2014, following a Centre's directive to suspend activity till UCIL's lease is renewed.

The damning report was written by journalist Adrian Levy for The Center for Public Integrity and is the first of a four-part series critical of India's nuclear programme...

One of the "hard evidence of the toxic footprint" the report cites is a 2009 paper authored by a team lead by physicist Dipak Ghosh from Kolkata's Jadavpur University. The study had collected water from Subarnarekha and adjacent wells, and found some of the samples had levels of radioactive alpha particles that were 160% higher than safe WHO's safe limits.


Quoting the study, the report says adequate measures had not been taken to prevent toxic leaks from the site. Ghosh's team had found the tailing ponds in the mine were neither lined with special material nor had a cap, which increased the chances of toxins leaching into the ground and into the air in the form of dust.
The report also details tests done by a Hiroaki Koide, a Japanese nuclear engineer who carried back samples from the area to Japan. Koide said radiation levels in villages close to the mines and in residential areas near the tailing ponds exceeded international safe limits by a factor of 10. The report says Koide also confirmed that uranium rock and finely ground mine tailings had been used as ballast for road leveling and house building.


The report also documents incidents of "radioactive leaks", such as the bursting of a pipe carrying toxic slurry on December 24, 2006. It says the slurry poured into a tributary of the Subarnarekha for nine hours, "causing shoals of dead fish to float on the surface. No government investigation was undertaken".

The author claims to have seen a corporation report that said "1.5 tonnes of solid radioactive waste and 20,000 litres of liquid radioactive waste" had spilled from a new pipe, close to Jaduguda town, on April 10, 2007.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Leaking-Jaduguda-mine-poses-radioactive-risk-US-report/articleshow/50178791.cms



-----------------------------------------------


Radon emanation from low-grade uranium ore.


 Dec 2013

Abstract

Estimation of radon emanation in uranium mines is given top priority to minimize the risk of inhalation exposure due to short-lived radon progeny. This paper describes the radon emanation studies conducted in the laboratory as well as inside an operating underground uranium mine at Jaduguda, India. Some of the important parameters, such as grade/(226)Ra activity, moisture content, bulk density, porosity and emanation fraction of ore, governing the migration of radon through the ore were determined. Emanation from the ore samples in terms of emanation rate and emanation fraction was measured in the laboratory under airtight condition in glass jar. The in situ radon emanation rate inside the mine was measured from drill holes made in the ore body. The in situ(222)Rn emanation rate from the mine walls varied in the range of 0.22-51.84 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1) with the geometric mean of 8.68 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1). A significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) between in situ(222)Rn emanation rate and the ore grade was observed. The emanation fraction of the ore samples, which varied in the range of 0.004-0.089 with mean value of 0.025 ± 0.02, showed poor correlation with ore grade and porosity. Empirical relationships between radon emanation rate and the ore grade/(226)Ra were also established for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the ore body.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23974076

-------------------------------------------------------


Roro Hills: Legacy Asbestos Mines


Location: Jharkhand, India
Region: South Asia
Source: Mining
Transmission: water, soil, air
Potentially affected people: 50 tribal villages


The problem

About 20 kilometers west of Chaibasa, the headquarters of West Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, lies the Roro hills-- home to an abandoned chrysotile asbestos mine. The Roro mines were closed down in 1983 after Hyderabad Asbestos Cement Products Ltd. (now known as Hyderabad Industries Limited) decided that they were no longer profitable.

Nearly 0.7 million tons of asbestos waste mixed with chromite-bearing host rock lies scattered here and in 20 years no study has been conducted to assess the fate of this hazardous waste dumped improperly on top of Roro hills. The waste material extends several meters down slope spreading into the paddy fields on the foothills of Roro. About 40 centimeters of thick silty waste of crushed rocks is spread over the paddy fields and poisoning the local residents.

Health Impact

The preliminary health survey of 14 villages around the Roro hills, with 45% of the respondents being former workers of the Roro asbestos mines, indicates a highly probable link between the asbestos exposures and several adverse health effects, such as low back pain, dyspnea (shortness of breath and difficulty breathing), hemoptysis (blood in the sputum), and blindness.

Old local newspaper clippings from Singbhumi Ekta, a weekly from Chaibasa, published between January and August 1981, include a press release from the late P. Mazumdar, the leader of the United Mine Workers Union (AITUC), which says that 30 workers from Roro mines had died of asbestosis.

The fact-finding team's interview with ex-workers from the Roro mines from Roro and Tilaisud villages revealed that most of them had suffered or are suffering from low back pains, blindness or severely reduced vision, and respiratory illnesses. Several of those interviewed complained of coughing blood in sputum. The team examined three chest radiographs (taken between 1998 and 2000) of workers who complained of chest pain and respiratory distress. The chest radiographs revealed several radio-opaque opacities in the middle and lower lobes of both lungs. These suggest some form of interstitial lung disease (pneumoconiosis, pulmonary tuberculosis as co- morbid conditions). Physical examinations were not carried out. Most patients described their conditions as tuberculosis but given their occupational histories, pneumoconiosis as either the principal diagnosis or a co-morbid condition cannot be ruled out and merits further investigation. Several workers with history of working in the asbestos mines complained of low back pain. One worker, who had worked at the pumping station for over 10 years, was suffering from epigastria hernia (A hernia is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening in the body). These findings suggest presence of ergonomic musculo-skeletal disorders.


http://www.blacksmithinstitute.org/projects/display/94

------------------------------------------------------------


IMPACT OF MINING IN JHARKHAND STATE, INDIA

 2008

http://nitishpriyadarshi.blogspot.com/2008/05/impact-of-mining-in-jharkhand-state.html

-------------------------------------------------------------------



Assessment of Natural Uranium in the Ground Water around Jaduguda Uranium Mining Complex, India

2011



https://file.scirp.org/pdf/JEP20110700018_97266353.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------

 Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides uranium and 226Ra in groundwater adjoining uranium complex of Turamdih, Jharkhand, India

 2014

http://www.currentscience.ac.in/Volumes/108/12/2266.pdf

-----------------------------------------------------------------

 Distribution of pollutants in ground water samples collected from uranium mining area

 2013

Abstract

Environmental pollution by chemical pollutants such as heavy metals, radionuclides, and anionic constituents such as sulfate and nitrate originated from mines and mining operations can become a very important source of contamination in water. Pollutants mainly present in the chemical industrial wastes as well as in the low level liquid releases from the nuclear fuel cycle. The solid hazardous radioactive wastes arising are usually disposed of in near surface/shallow land burial facilities. The heavy metals components of these solid wastes (radioactive and stable) could find their way either into the ground water through infiltrating water or to the soil by runoff. In this study, an approach is made for distribution of pollutants in ground water collected from seven locations around the premises of a uranium mining site, Turamdih located at Jharkhand state of India. Major and trace elements such as Na, K, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Al, Ba, Mo, and U, etc., were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and fluoride were analyzed using ion chromatogram. Bicarbonate was analyzed by titration method.

http://www.rpe.org.in/article.asp?issn=0972-0464;year=2013;volume=36;issue=3;spage=106;epage=108;aulast=Maity

-------------------------------------------------


Meghalaya: To mine or not to mine- Uranium


The attitude of the current Meghalaya state government in ‘daring’ the UCIL to  mine  at  their  own  risk  is flabbergasting in response to the tender notice  related  to  the  expression  of  interest  (EOI) issued by Uranium Corporation  of  India Limited (UCIL) on the 2nd July, this year. Isn’t the state  government  elected  by the people to look after their interests and well-being  of its people? How can the state government just sit around and wait  until  the  law  and order goes out of control? How can the state not make  any  explicit  intervention  and  assert its stand or at least have a stand in this regard.
An  article  published  in  the  Financial  Times  by  Arinda Sinha on 27th October,  2007  indicated  that  UCIL had announced that it would invest in mining  units in the state even though the project had not yet received the necessary   environmental  clearances.  This  highlights  the  callous  and insensitive  attitude  of UCIL not only towards the environment but also to the  livelihood  of  the people who would be displaced due to the project. UCIL  may  be  facing  hurdles  in  procuring  fuel material supply for its nuclear  reactors  but  the  nuclear  behemoth  needs  to  first assess and
understand  the  concerns  and  apprehensions  of  the people regarding the mining of this radioactive metal before coercing its diktat on the state.
The  state  of  Meghalaya  is said to possess the third largest reserves of uranium in the country after Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand. According to the announcement  by the minister for mining and geology at the Meghalaya state legislative  assembly  held  on 21st June, 2004, the state of Meghalaya had 9.22  million tonnes of ore which would yield about 9500 tonnes of uranium, given the quality of ore expected.
The  uranium deposits in the state occur along the southern frontier of the plateau  in  Domiasiat,  Tyrnai  and Wahkyn regions. These deposits have an average  grade  of  about  0.10  per  cent (U3O8) which indicates that 1000 kilograms  of  ore  will have to be processed at a uranium milling plant in order  to  obtain  a  kilogram  of uranium for which a large volume will be discarded  as  waste material. Such wastes material which are also known as mill tailings are contaminated with toxic heavy metals, such as molybdenum,
vanadium,  arsenic  and with radioactive materials, principally thorium-230 and radium-226.According to the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation  under the aegis of the National Research Council of the National Academy  Press  at Washington, the radium-226 decays into radioactive radon gas and epidemiological studies of underground miners from around the world have  conclusively  shown  that  inhalation  of radon increases the risk of lung-cancer  with  supporting evidence from experimental studies of animals and from molecular and cellular studies.
According  to  the  United States Environmental Protection Agency, tailings have  contaminated  the  groundwater  across all uranium sites in USA while leftover  tailings are stored in tailing dams which are subject to the risk of  dam  failures  due to earthquakes or strong rains. For instance, in the case  of  Jaduguda  uranium  mines  in Jharkhand, one of the pipes carrying radioactive  wastes  from  the uranium mill to a tailing pond burst on 24th December,  2006 where thousands of liters of radioactive waste spilled into a  nearby creek for nine hours before the flow of the radioactive waste was shut  off. The attitude of the officials of the Department of Atomic Energy
(DAE)  was  so  indifferent  and insouciant and stated that it was merely a “small  leak”  which  was  of  no  risk  to  anyone.The pipeline burst with radioactive  slurry  has  taken  place  a  number  of  times in April 2007, February  2010  and  as  recently  as  March  2015. In response to right to information  (RTI)  queries  filed  by  the  members  of  an NGO, Jharkhand Organization  against  Radiation  (JOAR), UCIL refuted indicating that they have adopted the best technologies to save the local population. The latest
pipeline  burst  resulted  in  forced  evacuation  of  half  the village of Chattikocha  of  which all the rice fields and livelihoods of the residents were destroyed.
The   Center  for  Public  Integrity  which  is  a  Washington  based  news organization  indicated  in  a 2015 report that radioactive and toxic waste have  been  leaking out of Jaduguda, Jharkhand affecting people, livestock, rivers,  forests  and  agricultural  produce  in  the  area.  A  2009 paper published  by  Kolkata’s Jadavpur University collected hard evidence of the toxic  footprint  and  found  that  some  of  the  samples  had  levels  of radioactive  alpha  particles  that  were  160%  higher  than  World Health Organization  (WHO)  safe limits. According to an article published by Down
to Earth in 1999 titled ‘ A deformed existence’,  Jaduguda has witnessed an increase  of  incidents  of  births  with  congenital deformities and other undesirable  outcomes  of  pregnancy among women living near the industry’s facilities.  A review of clinical reports and testimonies by the Center for Public  Integrity  in  Washington  point out to levels of radiation that in some places reach almost 60 times the safe levels.
The  Jharkhand  Organization  against Radiation (JOAR) spearheaded a health study  in  nearby villages had some staggering and astounding statistics to report  which stated that one in every five women reported a miscarriage or stillbirth.  Almost  4.5%  reported  deformities  at  birth  as compared to similar  villages  a  little further away that reported 2.49% and there was also  an  increase in incidences of cancer which was a common occurrence in all the affected villages.
The UCIL and India’s Atomic Energy Commission have consistently refuted and defended  these  claims  and  maintained  that operations  at  Jaduguda in Jharkhand  are safe. The corporation faces a real credibility and integrity issue.  UCIL’s claim that uranium mining will be safe has not been accepted by  the  public  at  large  with the majority of the populations who do not perceive  the  project  as being beneficial and are against mining. This is also  evident  in  Meghalaya  with  vast opposition and protest from tribal
leaders, local institutions of governance, opposition political parties and the  citizens  of the state etc. The major grounds for these protests arise out  of  concern  for  ecological  balance,  negative  externalities on the environment  and  the threat of health hazard anticipated from the proposed uranium  mining.  UCIL  needs  a rethink on how it proposes to mine uranium deposits in Meghalaya as strong arm tactics in a democracy is anti- people. While  the  country’s  energy  concerns  are  indeed pressing and immediate
enough  to  require quick action by the state, on this particular issue the state of Meghalaya needs to reconsider its options and strategy.

By Jonathan Donald Syiemlieh

https://thenortheasttoday.com/meghalaya-to-mine-or-not-to-mine-uranium/

---------------------------------------------------

Meghalaya Uranium Effect: This picture of Ranikor river will worry you!

 

SHILLONG: The hue and cry on the exploration of Uranium mining in the state of Meghalaya have just started to gain momentum.
Spearheading the campaign against Uranium mining, Khasi Student’s Union (KSU) has demanded the Meghalaya government to direct the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, under the Department of Atomic Energy to fill up all the pits, which were left uncovered after exploratory drilling of uranium in West Khasi Hills.
The call for action came when locals authorities spotted the water of the Ranikor River which started to change  its colour from blue to green since December last year.
The Khasi Student’s Union (KSU) has demanded an immediate inquiry to find out the cause.
Several thousand of fishes were found floating at Ranikor River first in 2010 and it still continues today. The river now is almost dead without any fishes or aquatic lives in it.
While briefing newsmen , Ranikor KSU circle president Marconi Thongni said, ” “We highly suspect that the sudden death of fishes and now the abnormal change in the colour of the River is due to uranium drilling.”
“Therefore we demand the state government to immediately issue necessary direction to the Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD) to fill up all these pits in order to prevent destruction on the environment,” added Thongni.
He said the district authorities have also directed the Meghalaya State Pollution Control Board (MSPCB) to investigate the matter and death of fish in 2010.
In a letter to the DC R Lyngdoh, the union said that this phenomenal change has become a cause of concern to the people on whether the water is still fit for human consumption or not.
Thongni said, “We demand the MSPCB to bring out the real cause into the causes of frequent unnatural death of fishes and the change in the colour of the river.”
After the incident in 2010, the Meghalaya State Pollution Control Board had cited coal mining as the main cause for the unnatural death of fishes in the Ranikor River. Wah Rilang and Wah Blei are the two river sources that converged at Ranikor River.
However, the KSU-RC maintained said it is not ready to accept the coal mining theory.

https://thenortheasttoday.com/meghalaya-uranium-effect-this-picture-of-ranikor-river-will-worry-you/


------------------------------------------------


India's generation of children crippled by uranium waste


 August 2009

Observer investigation uncovers link between dramatic rise in birth defects in Punjab and pollution from coal-fired power stations


Health workers in the Punjabi cities of Bathinda and Faridkot knew something was terribly wrong when they saw a sharp increase in the number of birth defects, physical and mental abnormalities, and cancers. They suspected that children were being slowly poisoned.
But it was only when a visiting scientist arranged for tests to be carried out at a German laboratory that the true nature of their plight became clear. The results were unequivocal. The children had massive levels of uranium in their bodies, in one case more than 60 times the maximum safe limit.


The results were both momentous and mysterious. Uranium occurs naturally throughout the world, but is normally only present in low background levels which pose no threat to human health. There was no obvious source in the Punjab that could account for such high levels of contamination.
And if a few hundred children – spread over a large area – were contaminated, how many thousands more might also be affected? Those are questions the Indian authorities appear determined not to answer. Staff at the clinics say they were visited and threatened with closure if they spoke out. The South African scientist whose curiosity exposed the scandal says she has been warned by the authorities that she may not be allowed back into the country.


https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/aug/30/india-punjab-children-uranium-pollution


------------------------------------------


How India’s Nuclear Industry Created A River Of Death, According to Court Case Claims

 

 Dec 2015

Scientists say nuclear workers, village residents and children living near mines and factories are falling ill after radiation exposure.


When Ghosh’s team collected samples from the river and from adjacent wells, seven years ago, he was alarmed by the results. The water was adulterated with radioactive alpha particles that cannot be absorbed through the skin or clothes, but if ingested cause 1,000 times more damage than other types of radiation. In some places, the levels were 160 percent higher than safe limits set by the World Health Organization.
“It was potentially catastrophic,” Ghosh said in a recent interview. Millions of people along the waterway were potentially exposed...

On Aug. 21, 2014, however, a justice in this state’s court ordered an official inquiry into allegations that the nuclear industry exposed tens of thousands of workers and villagers to dangerous levels of radiation, heavy metals or other carcinogens, including arsenic, from polluted rivers and underground water supplies that have percolated through the food chain — from fish swimming in the Subarnarekha River to vegetables washed in its tainted water....

India’s nuclear chiefs have long maintained that ill health in the region is caused by endemic poverty and the unsanitary conditions of its tribal people, known locally as Adivasi, or first people. But the testimony and reports document how nuclear installations, fabrication plants and mines have repeatedly breached international safety standards for the past 20 years. Doctors and health workers, as well as international radiation experts, say that nuclear chiefs have repeatedly suppressed or rebuffed their warnings.
The industry’s aim, local residents say, has been to minimize evidence of cancer clusters, burying statistics that show an alarming spate of deaths. The case files include epidemiological and medical surveys warning of a high incidence of infertility, birth defects and congenital illnesses among women living near the industry’s facilities. They also detail levels of radiation that in some places reach almost 60 times the safe levels set by organizations like the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, although India’s Atomic Energy Commission, the country’s top authority, disputes these findings...

The source of the poisonings
Charting the trail of disease and ill health back to its source, Ghosh’s team learned that the alpha radiation they had recorded came from the mines, mills and fabrication plants of East Singhbhum, a district whose name means “the land of the lions,” where the state-owned Uranium Corporation of India Ltd is sitting on a mountain of 174,000 tons of raw uranium. The company, based in Jadugoda, a country town 160 miles west of Kolkata, is the sole source of India’s domestically mined nuclear reactor fuel, a monopoly that has allowed it to be both combative and secretive.
After starting work in 1967 with a single mine, the corporation now controls six underground pits and one open-pit operation that stretch across 1,313 hilly acres, extract an estimated 5,000 tons of uranium ore a day and generate an annual turnover of $123 million. It supplies nine of the reactors that help India produce plutonium for its arsenal of nuclear weapons and is thus considered vital to India’s security.

The company crushes the ore below ground and treats it with sulfuric acid, transforming it into magnesium diuranate, or yellowcake, which is then loaded into drums and taken to the Rakha Mines railway station. From there, it is transported to the Nuclear Fuel Complex in Hyderabad, 861 miles to the southwest. Workers ultimately process it into uranium dioxide pellets that are stacked in rods and inserted into reactors all over India.

Anywhere in the world uranium is extracted, from Australia to New Mexico, it is a messy, environmentally disruptive process. However, the poor quality of ore eked out of these wooded hills means that for every pound of uranium extracted, 795 pounds of toxic slurry, known as tailings, must be discarded into three colossal ponds. Studies by scientists from North America, Australia and Europe show that while these ponds contain only small quantities of uranium, equally hazardous isotopes connected to uranium’s decay are also present, including thorium, radium, polonium and lead, some of which have a half-life of thousands of years. Arsenic and radon are byproducts, both carcinogens.
The tailing ponds in Jharkhand, Ghosh’s team and other scientists discovered, have never been lined with rubble, concrete or special plastics — procedures that organizations like the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommend for domestic ponds. As a result, their contents leached in winters into the water table. Lacking a cap, the ponds evaporated in summers, leaving a toxic dust that blew over nearby villages. Thirty-five thousand people live in seven villages that lie within a mile and half of the three huge ponds, most of them members of indigenous communities.

Moreover, during the monsoon season, the ponds regularly overflowed onto adjacent lands, with contaminants reaching streams and groundwater that eventually tainted the Subarnarekha River, according to studies by Ghosh’s team and other scientists. Pipes carrying radioactive slurry also frequently burst, leaching into rivers and across villages, according to photographs taken by residents. Trucks hired by the mines also dumped toxic effluent in local fields when the ponds were full, actions recorded in photographs and video by villagers and shown to the Center.
When Ghosh published his team’s results, there was no reaction from the mine or the Indian government. A senior official in the U.S. State Department declined to discuss the contents of Jardine’s leaked cable but said he was aware of criticisms about the uranium corporation.
 

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/india-uranium-mine-jadugoda_us_566b2d2ce4b0fccee16e8dcd


-------------------------------------------



Uranium Corporation of India


 Uranium Corporation of India (UCIL) is a centrally owned Public Sector Undertaking (PSU), under the Department of Atomic Energy for uranium mining and uranium processing. The corporation was founded in 1967 and is responsible for the mining and milling of uranium ore in India. The firm operates mines at Jadugora, Bhatin, Narwapahar, Turamdih and Banduhurang[2

Controversies

There was criticism from certain sections of the local community that the mining operations of UCIL were resulting in harmful radiation to the public.
UCIL was also among the 63 Indian establishments put under sanction by USA in 1998.
The mining activities of UCIL in the Khasi Hills were also fiercely opposed by the local tribals protesting against potential health effects.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium_Corporation_of_India

---------------------------

Jaduguda uranium mine


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaduguda_uranium_mine

The Jaduguda Mine (also spelt as Jadugoda or Jadugora) is a uranium mine in Jaduguda village in the Purbi Singhbhum district of the Indian state of Jharkhand. It commenced operation in 1967 and was the first uranium mine in India. The deposits at this mine were discovered in 1951. As of March 2012 India only possesses two functional uranium mines, including this Jaduguda Mine. A new mine, Tummalapalle uranium mine is discovered and mining is going to start from it.
Mining activities were suspended in 2014 following an inquiry into the lease renewal of the mine. Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) expects mining activity to resume at Jaduguda in 2017.
The Jaduguda mine produces up to 25% of the raw materials needed to fuel India’s nuclear reactors.

Smuggling of uranium

On 18 February 2008 police of Supaul district in the eastern Indian state of Bihar seized 4 kg of low-quality uranium and arrested one Indian and five Nepali smugglers. According to media reports the uranium was smuggled out of the Jaduguda mines and the smugglers were trying to sell it to Nepal. The market value of the seized uranium was estimated at 50,000,000 (US$780,000) on the international market.

Pollution

When uranium ore is extracted from the ground, 99,28% of the mined ore is treated as waste as the uranium isotopes used in nuclear power plants mainly is uranium-235 leaving behind the major portion of the ore which constitutes of uranium-236 and uranium-238 as well as some other components. This waste (also referred to as tailings) is then neutralised with lime and carried through pipelines to a tailing pond. This transport is made possible through the provision of clean water (in the pipelines) out of decantation wells which is then taken through a closed channel to an effluent treatment plant for the removal of radium and manganese. The solid tailings are then retained in the ponds (tailing ponds).

There were reports coming from the locals around the tailing ponds :
In a report in CSE-Down to Earth Feature Service, entitled "A deformed existence" and dated June 4, 1999, Manish Tiwari quoted Biruli as saying, "Many women in the area complain of disrupted menstrual cycles. This area also has a high rate of either miscarriages or still-born babies... Biruli claims that nearly 30,000 people living in 15 villages in the five-km radius of the tailings ponds are exposed to radiation. 'Earlier, children were still-born. Now they die within few days of their birth,' he says . He also claims that nearly one-third of the women living in these areas are suffering from loss of fertility. Even animals such as cows and buffaloes are suffering from rare diseases.[13]

The BARC committee came to Jaduguda in November 1998 at the request of the State Government, due to these reports.
The committee concluded: "The consensus of all the doctors was that the cases examined had congenital anomalies, diseases due to genetic abnormalities like thalassaemia major and retinitis pigmentosa, moderate to gross splenomegaly due to chronic malaria l infection (as this is hyperendemic area), malnutrition, post encephalitis, post head injury sequelae and certain habits (alcohol) and have no relation to radiation." Its report adds: "The team was convinced and unanimously agreed that the diseases' pattern cannot be ascribed to radiation exposure in any of these cases."

Controversies

The mine itself is still prone to some controversies as the introduction of the mine resulted in the loss of land for many villagers surrounding its location, as well as some issues regarding protective gear :
"A population of around 35,000 people living within a 5-kilometer radius of the mines are adversely affected by radiation from the tailing ponds. Many villagers lost land and jobs when they were displaced by the mining operations, and many now work in the uranium mines as daily wage labourers. They often do not get proper protective gear to handle radioactive materials and work with bare hands, exposing themselves to heavy doses of radiation. UCIL, the company responsible for the health of its workers, on the other hand, always refutes any allegations of violations of labour laws and human rights. The company is outright defensive about its protective measures and refuses to acknowledge the problems faced by the labourers."


----------------------------------------



Gujarat farmers protest proposed nuclear park


 News this week - Gujarat farmers oppose nuclear plant, drought hits Bihar and an eco-friendly Ganesh Chaturthi in Surat.


Gujarat farmers oppose Mithivirdi nuclear plant
Farmers of Bhavnagar district, where the Mithivrdi nuclear park is supposed to come up, refuse to part with their agricultural land. 877 hectares of land needs to be acquired for the 6,000 mega watt project that will have six nuclear power plants. The project will be set up by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) while the reactors will be supplied by Westinghouse, an American atomic power major. Farmers say they will not give away their highly fertile land for a hazardous venture.
Drought in Bihar
Even as 200 people died and seven million were displaced by floods in the state this year, 33 out of 38 districts in Bihar have now been declared drought-hit. The state had a 25% rainfall deficit this year. Land rent and cess, irrigation charge and electricity bills from farmers in drought-hit districts will be deferred for 2013-14. Measures to create rural livelihood and grow alternate crops will also be taken.
Kalpakkam nuclear plant operating without environment clearance
A public interest litigation (PIL) filed in the Madras High Court says that the Kalpakkam atomic power station has been running its two units without environment clearance for about three decades. The court has issued notice to the central government and the Tamil Nadu state Pollution Control Board. Information recieved under a Right to Information (RTI) application show that the plant has not followed recommendations of the NPCIL issued after the Fukushima disaster in Japan. The plant has also not taken any clearance for the storage of fuel spent by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board of India.
Tsunami wall threatens mangroves in Mumbai
Boulders dumped on a beach in Mumbai to prevent sea erosion and lessen the impact of disasters like tsunami threatens the mangrove species there. The Maharashtra Maritime Board is buidling a wall in Bandra from Joggers' Park to Chimbai beach. According to a local counsellor and fishermen opposing the wall, construction within 100 metres of the mangrove line requires forest clearance which the Board has not obtained.
A clean Ganesh Visarjan in Surat
Surat residents refrained from immersing Ganesh idols made with plaster of Paris in the Tapi river this year, resulting in a much cleaner river bed. As per the advice of the city municipal authorities, people either used idols made of clay or went up to the sea shore to immerse them. Nearly 34,000 idols were immersed in the sea on the last day of the Ganesh Chaturthi festival.
This is a weekly roundup of important news from September 16-22. 

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/gujarat-farmers-protest-proposed-nuclear-park

----------------------------------------

Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective


  May 2005

A cohort study from Kerala, India is a particularly apropos example of a well-executed investigation that was able to detect differences in the occurrence of birth defects (and other untoward pregnancy outcomes) among population groups [70]. In a genetic epidemiological and fertility survey conducted among 700,000 people in regions with normal background radiation (85 to 110 mR/yr) and high background radiation (735 – 563 mR/yr) – from thorium monazite in the soil – Padmanabham et al used personalized, direct contact with families to document a statistically significant increase in congenital malformations and other birth outcomes in the area with higher background exposure. Besides ionizing radiation, consanguinity and nearness of spouse's birthplace were included as additional risk factors for each birth outcome. This study is a model for an investigation of the incidence of birth defects (and other pregnancy outcomes) in regions of Iraq with and without contamination by DU aerosols. Ideally the regions being compared would be as similar as possible on other criteria including distribution of occupations and religion, economic situation, culture, or would allow for "control" of differences, as in the model of the Kerala study. (Of course, this study is also informative because though the radiation exposure in the Kerala region is due to radon, the case for teratogenicity related to increased radiation exposure is made.)
The study of Abushaban et al [56] is an assessment of the impact of DU on one class of birth defects in the absence of sanctions. In Kuwait, where there was DU (and other wartime) exposure(s) but no post-war sanctions, the post-war incidence of cardiac malformations overall and of numerous specific sub-categories was elevated. Kuwaiti trend data regarding prevalence of other classes of birth defects, particularly those elevated in Iraqi and other DU-exposed databases, could be highly informative...


https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-069X-4-17

-------------------------------------------


Who owns DU weapons and who has used them?


Nov 2007

At least 18 countries are thought to have weapon systems with DU in their arsenals. These include: UK, US, France, Russia, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Egypt, Kuwait, Jordan, Pakistan, Oman, Thailand, China, India and Taiwan. Many of them were sold DU ammunition by the US while others, including France, Russia, Pakistan and India are thought to have developed it independently. 

DU arsenals (selected countries)

*Britain*
The development of the 120mm ‘CHARM 1’ and ‘CHARM 3’ tank ammunition together cost $75 million. The UK also used 20mm shells as part of the US-built Phalanx Close-In-Weapon-System until the manufacturer Raytheon stopped producing them after the US Navy cancelled its contract with them.

*India*
A declassified UK Ministry of Defence paper on DU suggests that India was developing DU weapons in the early 1990s. It is now thought that they are manufacturing 125mm 3BM32 shells under licence from Russia.

 *Israel*
Palestinians allege that Israel has been using ammunition containing DU in Gaza and the West Bank. Israel has tanks capable of firing DU rounds, and has received limited exports of US-made DU ammunition.


https://newint.org/features/2007/11/01/the-facts

-------------------------------------------

Uranium deal could make Indian nuclear power safer

  
Sep 2014

 Australia is poised to export more than just uranium to India, but also the knowledge and expertise to make its nuclear power industry safer, writes Catherine Mei Ling Wong.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-05/mei-ling-wong-uranium-deal/5722862

-------------------------------------------

Depleted Uranium, the Trojan Horse of Nuclear War.

Since 1991, the United States has staged four wars using depleted uranium weaponry, illegal under all international treaties, conventions and agreements, as well as under the US military law.
The continued use of this illegal radioactive weaponry, which has already contaminated vast regions with low level radiation and will contaminate other parts of the world over time, is indeed a world affair and an international issue.
The deeper purpose is revealed by comparing regions now contaminated with depleted uranium - from Egypt, the Middle East, Central Asia and the northern half of India - to the US geostrategic imperatives described in Zbigniew Brzezinski’s 1997 book The Grand Chessboard.

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_uranium23.htm

-------------------------------------------

"The Legality of Depleted Uranium Munitions under International Humanitarian Law"


http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/VicULawJJl/2015/6.html

------------------------------------------

Nuclear Weapons and 'Fourth Generation' Reactors



 July 2009

A version of this article was published in FoE Australia's magazine Chain Reaction, August 2009.
'Integral fast reactors' and other 'fourth generation' nuclear power concepts have been gaining attention, in part because of comments by US climate scientist James Hansen. While not a card-carrying convert, Hansen argues for more research: "We need hard-headed evaluation of how to get rid of long-lived nuclear waste and minimize dangers of proliferation and nuclear accidents. Fourth generation nuclear power seems to have the potential to solve the waste problem and minimize the others."
Others are less circumspect, with one advocate of integral fast reactors promoting them as the "holy grail" in the fight against global warming. There are two main problems with these arguments. Firstly, nuclear power could at most make a modest contribution to climate change abatement, mainly because it is used almost exclusively for electricity generation which accounts for about one-quarter of global greenhouse emissions. Doubling global nuclear power output (at the expense of coal) would reduce greenhouse emissions by about 5%. Building six nuclear power reactors in Australia (at the expense of coal) would reduce Australia's emissions by just 4%.
The second major problem with the nuclear 'solution' to climate change is that all nuclear power concepts (including 'fourth generation' concepts) fail to address the single greatest problem with nuclear power − its repeatedly-demonstrated connection to the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Not just any old WMDs but nuclear weapons − the most destructive, indiscriminate and immoral of all weapons.


http://www.foe.org.au/anti-nuclear/issues/nfc/power-weapons/g4nw

-----------------------------------------



Depleted Uranium


Contents


http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Depleted_Uranium

-------------------------------------------


8 Shocking Facts You Never Knew About Uranium

  

Apr 4, 2017

If you thought uranium was all about nuclear bombs, think again. It does so much more than that, on both sides of the nuclear equation.

 1. More common than you realize

 2. You need a lot of it

3. All uranium is created equal

 4. Weapons-grade depleted uranium?

5. A little protection

 6. Do the locomotion

7. Back to power

8. Reliable "clean" energy


https://www.fool.com/investing/2017/04/04/pub-april-4-8-shocking-facts-you-never-knew-about.aspx

-------------------------------------------


Nuclear Power: Economic, Safety, Health, and Environmental Issues of Near-Term Technologies

 2009

http://mvramana.yolasite.com/resources/annurev.environ.033108.092057.pdf


------------------------------------------


Nuclear power in India

 

 Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources of electricity. As of 2016, India has 22 nuclear reactors in operation in 8 nuclear power plants, having an installed capacity of 6780 MW and producing a total of 30,292.91GWh of electricity while 6 more reactors are under construction and are expected to generate an additional 4,300 MW.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_in_India

-----------------------------------------



Fissile Materials in South Asia:
The Implications of
the U.S.-India Nuclear Deal

 2006

http://fissilematerials.org/library/rr01.pdf


-------------------------------------------


Depleted Uranium And International Law

 23 October, 2004


https://www.countercurrents.org/du-shah231004.htm



--------------------------------------------------


Green tribunal bans sand mining in Kerala, Tamil Nadu sea coast


August 2013

After banning mining of river sand and other minor minerals without the mandatory environment clearance, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) has now banned beach sand mining from the sea coasts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The ban was in response to a petition filed by the NGT Bar Association, which among other environmental risks enumerated risk of radiation from the mining of beach minerals, mostly consisting of rare earths—crucial for nuclear power. Studies show that separation of beach sand, which usually consists of rare earth ores like monazite, is a hazardous process in which workers and people living next to the mining sites are exposed to radiation.

A five-member bench headed by Justice Swatanter Kumar directed the chief secretaries of the two states, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, to file affidavits before August 29,  as there have been many instances of illegal beach sand mining recorded in both the states. The affidavit filed by NGT Bar Association states that the Tirunelvelli, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari districts in Tamil Nadu are among areas worst affected by mining of beach minerals. It was pointed out to the tribunal that Viapar, a village on the Tamil Nadu coast in Tuticorin, witnessed illegal mining of 230,000 tonnes of beach sand minerals in the past one year.

Retired Tamil Nadu bureaucrat V Sundaram, who in 2012 had sought information under Right To Information Act, said that India is the third largest producer of monazite, an ore mostly found in the coastal parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. It is from monazite that thorium is extracted through a separation process.  In view of the allegations levelled by Sundaram and many environmental activists from Tamil Nadu, the state government has appointed a three-member team to investigate illegal mining of monazite without environmental clearances from Kanyakumari, Tirunelvelli and Tuticorin. Sundaram estimates that Rs 96,000 crore worth of monazite may have been exported illegally to various countries by private beach sand manufacturers over the past decade. According to Atomic Minerals Directorate, monazite contains 0.2–0.4 per cent uranium in the form of uranium oxide and 4.5–9.5 per cent thorium as thorium oxide, depending on the region of origin or occurrence....

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/green-tribunal-bans-sand-mining-in-kerala-tamil-nadu-sea-coast-41938

-------------------------------------------------


Background radiation and radioactivity in India


May 5, 2011

We live in a sea of radiation. In any city, an unsuspecting owner of a 0.1 acre backyard garden may not know that the top one metre of soil from his garden contains 11,200 kg of potassium, 1.28 kg which is of potassium- 40 (K-40, a radioactive isotope of potassium), 3.6 kg of thorium and one kg of uranium.
These values may be higher or lower depending on the soil. Uranium and thorium decay through several radio-nuclides to lead, a stable element. The presence of radioactive nuclides does not pose any significant risk.

Total dose

The total annual external dose from sources in soil and cosmic rays in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi and Bengaluru is 0.484, 0.81, 0.79, 0.70 and 0.825 milligray respectively. Gray is a unit for absorbed dose; when the radiation energy imparted to a kg of material is one joule, it is called a gray. Since gray is very large, milligray (one thousandth of a gray), and microgray (one millionth of a gray), are commonly used.
Cosmic rays come from outer space. Their intensity at a place depends on the altitude. Cosmic rays alone contribute 0.28 milligray at the first three cities as they are at sea level; the column of air helps to reduce their intensity. At high altitudes, the protection from the column of air is less.
The cosmic ray contributions are higher at 0.31 milligray and 0.44 milligray respectively at Delhi and Bengaluru as these cities are at altitudes of 216 metre and 921 metre. Air passengers receive 5 microgray per hour from cosmic rays.
Parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu are high background radiation areas (HBRA) because of the presence of large quantities of monazite in the soil. Thorium content in monazite ranges from 8-10.5 per cent. Researchers found that the radiation levels in 12 Panchayats in Karunagappally varied between 0.32 to 76 milligrays per year; the levels in 90 per cent of over 71,000 houses were more than one milligray per year.
The average value of population dose in HBRA is 3.8 milligray per year. One milligray is the average value for areas of normal background radiation. The units milligray and millisievert are the same in these instances. Study at the HBRA during 1990-99 by the researchers from the Regional Cancer Centre and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre did not show any health effect attributable to radiation.
Radon, which occurs in uranium series present in soil seeps into homes. In temperate areas radon decay products build up in air due to poor ventilation and deliver high doses to the lungs of millions of people. In tropics ventilation is adequate to disperse radon .In the United Kingdom persons in 5 per cent of the homes are exposed to doses above 23.7 mSv/year. One per cent of the population receives doses above 55.8 mSv/year. The highest estimated dose was 320 mSv/year in Cornwall.
All foodstuffs contain potassium-40 (K-40). We need potassium for sustenance. K-40 is 0.012 per cent of potassium. Once ingested, most of the potassium enters the blood stream directly and gets distributed to all tissues and organs.

Homeostatic control

The potassium content in the human body is strictly under homeostatic control. The body retains only the amounts in the normal range essential for its functioning; it is independent of the variations in the environmental levels.
The body excretes excess amounts with a biological half life of 30 days. K-40 delivers a constant annual radiation dose of 0.18 mSv to soft tissue. This dose is unavoidable as potassium is an essential element. Every time we eat a banana, we are introducing 14 Bq of K-40 in to our body. Trucks containing bananas have triggered radiation alarms at border posts in the U.S.

Brazil nut

Brazil nut is probably the most radioactive food. Scientists have measured 700Bq of radium per kg of Brazil nut.
The roots of the Brazil nut tree pass through acres of land; They have a tendency to concentrate barium; along with barium, the roots collect radium as well. Radium appears in the nuts. Many vegetables like brinjal, carrot etc. also contain the radioactive isotope.
Indian researchers have measured polonium-210 in fish and other marine organisms. Our whole body is hit by particles coming from all sides. Radiation is a part of our life. We cannot avoid eating food just because it contains radioactivity



http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/agriculture/background-radiation-and-radioactivity-in-india/article1991190.ece

---------------------------------------

New Uranium Mining Projects - India

 http://www.wise-uranium.org/upin.html    







General

Import · Domestic · Sea water

General, Import

India in talks with Uzbekistan to create uranium reserve

India is engaging with various countries, including Uzbekistan, to procure nuclear fuel as part of its plan to create a strategic uranium reserve to ensure long-term security. The plan is to have a stockpile of nuclear fuel for its strategic uranium reserve that can sustain the country's reactors for the next five years so that they do not stop functioning because of the lack of uranium. In the past, the Indian power reactors were under- performing due to shortage of uranium, owing to the sanctions imposed by the West post 1974 Pokhran nuclear tests.
Talks are currently being held with Uzbekistan, a senior government official said, and a delegation from the Central Asian country had visited India last month to discuss the issue in detail.
"We have been looking to import uranium from Uzbekistan in the past. Back then, they had refused to transport uranium to an Indian port. But now they have agreed to do so and negotiations are on," said a senior government official requesting anonymity. (NDTV Sep. 24, 2017)

India to begin talks on uranium supply with Mongolia

> View here

India imported 600 tonnes of uranium from Russia, Canada in 2015-16

Under bilateral civil nuclear cooperation agreements, India imported over 345 tonnes of uranium from Russia and 250 tonnes from Canada during 2015-16 to fuel Indian nuclear plants, parliament was told on Wednesday (July 20).
In a written reply to the Lok Sabha [lower house of India's parliament], Minister of State for Atomic Energy Jitendra Singh said that India has earlier imported 297 metric tonnes (MT) of uranium in 2014-15 also from TVEL, the fuel company of Rosatom, Russia's state-run atomic energy corporation.
During 2014-15, 283.4 MT of uranium was imported from the state-run Kazatomprom of Kazakhstan, the minister added. (ZeeNews July 20, 2016)

First Canadian uranium shipment to arrive in India in December 2015

> View here

Kazakhstan to supply India with 5,000 tonnes of uranium

> View here

India has imported 4458 metric tonnes of uranium since 2008

Around 4458 metric tonnes (MT) of uranium has been imported to fuel nuclear power reactors in the country since 2008, the government today said. Of the 4458 MT, India ordered 2058 MT of uranium from M/s Tvel Corporation of Russia, followed by 2100 MT from M/s NAC Kazatomprom, Kazakhstan from 2008 till date, Jitendra Singh, Union Minister of State for Department of Atomic Energy, said in a written response to a question in Rajya Sabha today. From M/s Areva France, India has ordered 300 MT from in 2008-09 and 2009-10. (PTI Dec. 11, 2014)

India government cites "public interest" for not divulging annual uranium production figures

> View here

Uzbekistan to supply 2,000 tonnes of uranium to India

> View here

Uganda seeks India's assistance to develop its uranium deposits

> View here

India's nuclear power plants no longer experiencing fuel shortage

> View here

India close to importing uranium from Uzbekistan

India is very close to importing uranium from Uzbekistan and an agreement in this regard is nearing completion, official sources said today. The issue came up for discussion during talks here between visiting External Affairs Minister Salman Khurshid and his Uzbek counterpart Abdulaziz Kamilov, the sources said. The agreement will not be a civil nuclear deal but a contract like the one with Kazakhstan, under which India will import a little over 2,000 tonnes of uranium by 2014, they said. (Economic Times Sep. 14, 2013)

India has to purchase nuclear reactors from Russia and other foreign countries in order to get uranium from these countries

In an informal chat with reporters, Shekar Basu, director of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), when queried why India is using nuclear reactors from Russia and other foreign countries said: "There is shortage of uranium in India and the country in order to buy uranium has to purchase nuclear reactors from these countries as it gives business to their domestic firms." (Times of India Jun 2, 2013)

India to explore possibility of getting uranium from Uzbekistan

Vice-President M. Hamid Ansari said India would explore the possibility of getting uranium supplies from Uzbekistan, which has rich reserves of the heavy metal. (The Hindu May 22, 2013)

India considers setting up new company to acquire foreign uranium mines

India may soon set up a new company to acquire uranium mines in foreign countries to ensure fuel supplies to its burgeoning nuclear power programme. The Atomic Energy Commission has recommended setting up of a joint venture company between Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) and Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) to explore the possibility of acquiring uranium assets abroad, Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office V Narayanasamy informed the Parliament. (PTI Aug. 23, 2012)

India working out mechanisms with South Africa to access its uranium

> View here

India shows interest in stakes in Areva's African uranium mines

French energy major Areva, which is supplying nuclear fuel for Indian reactors, has offered partnership stakes to the state-run Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) in its uranium producing mines abroad. "We have offered to NPCIL and the Atomic Energy Commission to invest with us in our new and existing uranium mining projects," chairman and managing director, Areva India, Arthur de Montalembert told HT in an exclusive chat. "NPCIL has shown interest and talks are progressing for a stake in some uranium mines in Africa." (Hindustan Times July 7, 2011)

India and Kazakhstan sign nuclear agreement, including joint uranium mining

> View here

India seeking interest in Russia's proposed Elkon uranium mine

> View here

India's Nuclear Power Corporation and Uranium Corporation to form joint venture to acquire uranium mines abroad

Nuclear Power Corporation (NPC) would soon sign an agreement with Uranium Corporation of India (UCI), both state-run companies, for a joint venture to acquire mining assets abroad to procure uranium. They're looking at mining assets in Nigeria [?!], Namibia, Mongolia and Kazakhstan. The JV would also focus on the procurement of uranium from these assets, as well as other sources.
NPC's chairman and managing director, S K Jain, told Business Standard; "UCI has domain knowledge in uranium mining, while NPC has the necessary funds for the proposed investments. NPC will have a majority stake of 74 per cent, while 26 per cent would be held by UCI in the proposed JV. The JV would have a working capital of Rs 15 billion [US$ 336 million] and it expects to invest Rs 50 billion [US$ 1.12 billion] over the next five years in the acquisition of mining assets in the four shortlisted countries." (Business Standard Oct. 6, 2010)

Imminent Canada-India nuclear pact heightens tensions

> See here

India to mine uranium in Mongolia

> See here

India's need for uranium to grow 10-fold by 2020

India's need for uranium will increase 10-fold by 2020 as Asia's third-largest energy consumer boosts nuclear power generation, the country's monopoly atomic generator forecast today. India will need about 8,000 tons of uranium annually, said Jagdeep Ghai, finance director at state-owned Nuclear Power Corp. of India. The nation has signed civil nuclear agreements with six countries, including Canada, Kazakhstan and Namibia, to secure stakes in overseas uranium mines, Ghai said. (Bloomberg Dec. 21, 2009)

Treaty of Pelindaba prohibits African uranium exports to India

The African Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone Treaty - also known as the Treaty of Pelindaba after a nuclear research facility in South Africa - requires that African countries do nuclear trade only with countries that agree on the full scope of nuclear safeguards for all their nuclear sources and associated facilities. The treaty stands in the way of India sourcing uranium from several African countries, including Namibia, Gabon, Niger, Uganda and Angola and clinching a nuclear research arrangement with South Africa. (The Hindu Nov. 17, 2009)
[The treaty entered into force on July 15, 2009. South Africa, Gabon, Malawi, among others, have ratified it, while other (potential) uranium exporters, such as Namibia, Niger, have only signed but not ratified it yet.]

Cameco hopes to supply uranium to India

> See here

India signs uranium supply agreement with Mongolia

> See here

India, Namibia sign uranium supply deal

> See here

Areva offers India stakes in African uranium mines

Areva SA has offered India stakes in African uranium mines to ensure supplies for fuel-starved plants, the head of the nation's monopoly nuclear generator said. State-run Nuclear Power Corp. of India is considering investing in as many as four mines, including projects in South Africa and Nigeria, Chairman Shreyans Kumar Jain said in a telephone interview in Mumbai. "Some of the mines that we have been offered stakes in are already producing and some have yet to be developed," Jain said. "We may invest up to 26 percent of the project cost," he said, declining to give more details about the mines or how much the company would spend on the proposed acquisitions. (Bloomberg June 5, 2009)

India to receive up to 2500 t of uranium from Kazakhstan

India could soon receive up to 2500 tonnes of uranium from Kazakhstan as an agreement in this regard is set to be signed between the two sides by the month-end. (PTI May 11, 2009)

India to get first imported nuclear fuel consignment

India will receive this week the first consignment of natural uranium imported from French and Russian companies for its fuel-starved reactors after it got the NSG waiver for nuclear commerce in September 2008. Around 60 tonnes of natural uranium from French company AREVA is expected to arrive at Nuclear Fuel Complex in Hyderabad in a day or two and around the same quantity from Russian company TVEL in a week's time, sources in the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) said on Monday. (Economic Times March 30, 2009)

India to enter joint venture for uranium mining in Kazakhstan

> View here

Areva signs agreement for uranium supply to India

French energy firm Areva has signed an agreement with government-run monopoly Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) to supply about 300 tonnes of uranium annually. This is the first major nuclear fuel supply agreement by the Indian firm after the approval of the Indo-US civil nuclear deal early this year. (Economic Times Dec. 16, 2008)

Russia signs agreement on supply of uranium to India

On Dec. 5, 2008, India and Russia signed agreements that would eliminate the supply-demand mismatch in uranium and enable the setting up of more state-of-the-art nuclear power plants in India. At a summit meeting with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev put the final touches on a mega agreement to supply nearly 2,000 tonnes of uranium. (The Hindu Dec. 6, 2008)

Russia and India planning joint uranium extraction

> View here

Kazakhstan prepared to supply uranium to India

> View here

South Africa ready to supply uranium to India

> View here

Nuclear Suppliers Group lifts ban on nuclear trade with India; decision deplored by international disarmament network

On Sep. 6, 2008, forty-five nations (organized in the Nuclear Suppliers Group ) approved a U.S. proposal to lift a global ban on nuclear trade with India in a breakthrough towards sealing a U.S.-Indian atomic energy deal.
One hurdle remained before the U.S.-India deal can take force -- ratification by the U.S. Congress. It must act before adjourning in late September for elections or the deal could be left to an uncertain fate under a new U.S. administration. The U.S.-India deal raised international misgivings since India has shunned the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) meant to stop the spread and production of nuclear weapons and mandate gradual disarmament, and a companion test ban pact. (Reuters Sep. 6, 2008) The US-India Deal Working Group of the international disarmament network, ABOLITION 2000 , deplores the decision of the 45-nation Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) to approve a special exemption for India from its nuclear trade rules.
The exemption will allow India to participate in international nuclear trade, but, contrary to the claims of its advocates, it will not bring India further into conformity with the nonproliferation behavior expected of the member states of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
Unlike 178 other countries, India has not signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). It continues to produce fissile material and expand its nuclear arsenal. As one of only three states never to have signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), it has not made a legally-binding commitment to achieve nuclear disarmament, and it refuses to allow comprehensive, full-scope International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. (CNIC Sep. 7, 2008)

Nuclear Suppliers Group defers decision on resumption of nuclear trade with India

On Aug. 22, 2008, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) deferred a decision on a U.S. draft proposal on a statement on civil nuclear cooperation with India.
Participating governments of the NSG are: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and United States and the EC as an observer.

First consignment of enriched uranium from Russia arrives at Koodankulam nuclear power plant (India)

> View here

India seeks uranium from Namibia

> View here

Gabon willing to supply uranium to non-NPT signatory India

> View here

Indian company granted uranium exploration and mining permit in Niger

> View here

Export of Australian uranium to India

> View here

US company ready to deliver uranium to India

> View here

NGOs urge Japanese Government to oppose India-US nuclear deal

On September 6, 2006, 48 Japanese NGOs submitted a petition to Prime Minister Koizumi calling on the Japanese government to oppose lifting Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) restrictions on nuclear trade with India.
The possible supply of nuclear fuel to India would, in fact, add to its nuclear weapons capabilities by freeing-up its existing and limited domestic capacity to produce highly enriched uranium and plutonium exclusively for weapons. > View CNIC release Sep. 6, 2006
 

Nuclear Power Corp. of India to spend $1.2 billion on stake in Canadian and Australian uranium mines

India's nuclear power company plans to spend $1.2 billion on a stake in a uranium mine to support an expanded atomic power program. Nuclear Power Corp. of India approached Australian and Canadian companies on a possible joint venture in uranium mining, Chairman S.K. Jain said, without naming them. India may compete with China for deposits of the metal, he said. Nuclear Power Corp. is seeking a joint venture in which the state-owned company and the foreign partner will each invest $200 million and $800 million will come from loans, Jain said. "We are looking at investments of $1.2 billion per mine." (Bloomberg May 29, 2006)  

India to continue uranium mining, even if imports for civilian purposes would become possible

The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) wants to mine uranium in the country, irrespective of whether it would import the radioactive ore from abroad or not, only for the 'sake of self-sufficiency'.
Chances of India importing uranium from abroad are more. This, after New Delhi and Washington signed an agreement for nuclear cooperation early this year. The deal once cleared by the US Congress would enable India's import of uranium from abroad. Under the accord, India agreed to separate its civilian and non-civilian nuclear programme. The civilian facilities would be subjected to international scrutiny, under the deal.
However, the imported nuclear fuel 'would not be allowed to be used in non-civilian facilities'. This was informed by the head of the Public Awareness Division of DAE, Swapnesh Kumar Malhotra. He further added that this was reason enough for 'India to continue with its own programme to mine uranium in the country, apart from for the sake of self-sufficiency'. (Assam Tribune May 29, 2006)  

Change emerging in India's nuclear fuel procurement policy?

India should find a political solution to access latest reactor technology and uranium in international market even while steadfastly adhering to its stated position on Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), says the outgoing Chairman of the Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), C. Ganguly. He has stressed the need for finding a political solution through diplomacy if India has to expand its nuclear power programme in a big way. "Better buy uranium abroad if you can get it cheaper and not waste time by rediscovering the wheel."
Foreign companies should also be allowed to undertake mining and produce uranium in the country by amending the laws, if necessary, and, in return, India should buy from them at a lesser rate than the prevailing international market price. (The Hindu Aug. 13, 2004)  


General, Domestic

India performs uranium exploration in Madhya Pradesh without consultation of tribal residents

Uranium exploration in Madhya Pradesh's Betul district has adversely affected the lives of around 4,000 people in 13 villages that fall under three panchayats-Khapa, Kachchar and Jhapri. Most of the people belong to the Korku and Gond tribes. The problem started when the surveyors, who are from the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMDER), stopped village residents from entering the surrounding forests to collect firewood and started to drill in their farms.
"Since the villages are in a Fifth Schedule area, they are governed by a special administrative system, and any exploratory activity without the permission of all the concerned gram sabhas is illegal," says Anil Garg, a Betul-based advocate and forest rights activist. But this has not been the case. (Down To Earth July 31, 2017)  

Indian government formulates action plan to upgrade exploration of uranium

The Government of India has prepared an action plan to upgrade the exploration and research capacity of Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD). AMD is a constituent unit of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), with a mandate to identify and evaluate mineral reserves including uranium required for the successful implementation of atomic energy programme of the country, for discovering new uranium deposits.
For enhancing the atomic mineral resources including uranium, the Government has formulated new projects involving Rs. 831.48 crores [US$ 125 million] during XII Plan period (2012-2017). The capacity increase includes enhancement of (i) drilling meterage by departmental rigs, (ii) heliborne and ground geophysical surveys, and; (iii) analytical support with the help of latest state-of-the-art instruments/equipments. This has helped AMD to augment the uranium reserve of the country by 60,164 tonnes U3O8 [51,019 t U] during the XII Plan (as on 29.02.2016).
Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Development of North-Eastern Region (DoNER), MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr Jitendra Singh in informed in a written reply to a question in Lok Sabha [lower house of India's parliament] today. (Indian Awaaz Apr. 27, 2016)  

India's nuclear power plants no longer experiencing fuel shortage

The capacity utilisation of Indian nuclear power plants was low in the past because of shortage of fuel but after efforts in augmenting indigenous fuel supply and international cooperation, it has increased to 80 per cent, the Lok Sabha was informed today. (Economic Times Dec. 18, 2013)  

India eyes thorium and uranium recovery from monazite tailings

India's Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) would permit private miners to process beach sand and supply monazite tailings to the government-owned Indian Rare Earths Limited (IREL) to increase latter's capacity to extract thorium and uranium. At present, private miners were allowed to extract rare earths from beach sand but not process radioactive monazite, which under the Atomic Energy Act, was categorised as a 'prescribed substance' and the sole domain of the government.
According to an official in Mines Ministry, the DAE proposed to make amendments to the Atomic Energy Act so that beach sand miners could hand over the monazite tailings to IREL for further processing into thorium and possibly uranium, if economically feasible. Data from the Atomic Mineral Directorate for Exploration and Research has shown that India's monazite reserve was estimated at 10.70-million tons. (Mining Weekly July 18, 2012)  

Uranium shortfall still idles India's nuclear power plants

The shortfall in the supply of domestic uranium has affected the operation of nuclear plants and none of them is working at full capacity, the government admitted in the Lok Sabha (lower house of the Parliament of India) on Wednesday (Dec. 9). Of the 17 nuclear power reactors, 11 are not operating at optimum capacity because they use indigenous uranium which is not available in the required quantity, Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office Prithviraj Chavan said in a written reply. Three reactors use imported uranium and operate at maximum capacity, while three other reactors are currently under long term maintenance and are shut down. Mr. Chavan said the government had taken steps to increase the supply of indigenous uranium and the use of imported fuel for reactors under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards. As a result, overall capacity utilisation of the nuclear plants is progressively improving. The capacity utilisation, which was about 50 per cent in 2008-09, is higher at about 60 per cent for April-November 2009. (The Hindu Dec. 10, 2009) The country's largest nuclear reactors are running at half of their capacity due to uranium shortage resulting in cutting down electricity supply to western India. The two 540 MWe units at Tarapur ran at 57 per cent of their capacity in January and on an average they were running at 55-70 per cent of their total capacity due to a shortfall in the availability domestic uranium, Union science and technology minister Prithviraj Chavan said in the Rajya Sabha on Thursday (Mar. 4). Chavan admitted a shortage of 324 MWe in nuclear power generation for the whole country, making it clear that the government is running behind schedule to operationalise new mills and mines in Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. There are 18 operational nuclear plants across the country with a total installed capacity of 4340 MWe. (Deccan Herald Mar. 4, 2010)
 

Rally in New Delhi against nuclear power and uranium mining

The National Alliance of Anti-Nuclear Movements (NAAM) today (Oct. 2) organised a rally in Delhi, widening the ambit of the Khasi Students Union’s anti-uranium mining crusade. Nearly 200 NAAM activists carrying placards and banners were joined by some Khasi students led by KSU president Samuel Jyrwa. They blended anti-nuclear power plant protests with the uranium mining issue. At Jantar Mantar, speakers from Meghalaya, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand highlighted the ill effects of uranium mining and the dangers of setting up of nuclear power plants. (The Telegraph Oct. 2, 2009)
 

U.S. willing to share technical know-how on uranium mining with India

The United States is keen to share technical expertise with India on uranium mining, US Consul General Beth A Payne said here today. "We can certainly explore options and opportunities available. Maybe we can partner with the government and share our experience and expertise on how to mine uranium safely," Payne, who is on three day visit to Meghalaya, said. The uranium mining project in the state was yet to start due to opposition from organisations apprehending health and environmental hazards. (SamayLive Sep. 3, 2009)  

India to achieve uranium self-sufficiency by 2013

India is expected to achieve self-sufficiency in uranium production to feed its existing nuclear power projects and proposed plants by 2013, Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Anil Kakodkar said. With the Jadugoda Uranium mill in Jharkhand expanded and the proposed expansion of Turamdih mill expected to be over next year, uranium production would go up. Besides, exploration of uranium is underway at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh and it is expected to go on stream by 2013, he told reporters here. "We are also working to explore uranium at Gogi near Gulbarga in Karnataka," he said and expressed the hope that a proposed project at Meghalaya would also be cleared soon. (Indian Express Aug. 2, 2009)  

India to invest $150 million in domestic uranium exploration

Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Anil Kakodkar said an amount of Rs 7 - 8 billion [US$ 142 - 162 million] would be invested in exploration of uranium deposits in the country during the 11th Five Year Plan period. (Business Standard Nov 19, 2008)  

India aims to double uranium reserves

India aims to more than double uranium reserves for its nuclear energy programme and will spend 2 billion rupees ($47.5 million) on aiding exploration and prospecting, a minister said. Science and Technology Minister Kapil Sibal said the federal cabinet had approved steps to boost uranium supplies by an additional 75,000 tonnes. India has an estimated 61,000 tonnes of uranium reserves, according to the Department of Atomic Energy. (Reuters Aug. 8, 2008)  

ONGC to enter uranium mining in India

Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), the country's largest oil and gas producer, plans to enter uranium mining in alliance with public-sector Uranium Corporation of India, aiming to tap the business opportunity from nuclear fuel shortage in Asia's third largest economy. ONGC is aligning with Uranium Corporation as the latter is the only entity allowed to undertake uranium mining in India, and has the power to allot mining leases to others like ONGC, said two analysts tracking the nuclear industry. (Business Standard July 25, 2008) The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. for cooperation in uranium exploration and development. (domain-b Dec. 12, 2008)
State run Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) is all set to take up the new challenge of uranium exploration in Tripura. AK Hazarika in Agartala, Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) of ONGC says a pilot project is being launched to explore fields for uranium mining in the riverbed of rivers Krishna and Godavari. (ANI July 24, 2011)
The state-run company has started mining for uranium in the Cauvery area in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu in partnership with Uranium Corp. of India and plans to explore in Andhra Pradesh state, the ONGC chairman said. (Bloomberg Aug. 4, 2011)
 

India's Department of Atomic Energy demands commercialisation of all exploratory uranium mines in the country to fill nuclear fuel supply gap

To minimise the mismatch of uranium fuel for the Indian nuclear power industry, the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) today said that all uranium mines that were discovered and explored so far by the Atomic Minerals Division of the department should be commercialised. "All the exploratory uranium mines of the department should be converted into commercial mines without any delay in order to boost the Indian nuclear power industry which is currently running at 50 per cent capacity inspite of Nuclear Power corporation of India limited, a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) of the DAE that had achieved a 95 per capacity of their plants since late 1990s," department's spokesperson and Head, Public Awareness Division, S K Malhotra told PTI. Both State and Central government should help in carrying out this commercialisation of the exploratory mines without any more delay, he said. (PTI May 28, 2008)  

India investing "heavily" in uranium exploration

To ensure that the country's nuclear programme is not dependent on the implementation of the Indo-US civil nuclear deal, the government is investing heavily in uranium exploration, a top official of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) said on May 11, 2008. "Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Meghalaya and other regions are among those we are looking at for uranium exploration," Anil Kakodkar, Secretary, DAE, said here. Approximately Rs 7 billion (US$ 168 million) is being invested in using the latest technology to explore multiple states for uranium, he said. (Times of India May 11, 2008)  

India aims at uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

In an effort to sustain the first phase of nuclear power programme, which is currently facing shortage of fuel, the Heavy Water Board (HWB) is setting up a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) in Mumbai to get Uranium from secondary sources like phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid, manufactured using rock Phosphate, contains about 60-150 ppm of Uranium and the TDP is under advanced stage of construction at the Rashtriya Chemical and Fertilisers (RCF) Ltd at Chembur in northeast Mumbai and will be completed by the end of this year, A L N Rao, Chairman and Chief Executive of HWB, told PTI.
The TDP will operate by taking freshly prepared Wet Phosphoric Acid (WPA) from phosphoric acid plant at RCF. After the extraction of Uranium in TDP, the WPA will be returned to Phosphoric Acid Plant for production of phosphatic fertilisers, he said. TDP has been integrated with Phosphoric Acid Plant for supply and return of WPA, supply of utilities like power, process water, fire water, and return of effluents, Rao said. (The Hindu 21 Oct 2008) The Heavy Water Board , a state-owned utility under the DAE, is setting up an industrial-scale Technology Demonstration Plant for the recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid, manufactured using rock phosphate, at Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertiliser's Trombay facility. The Board's Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) at Trombay aims to squeeze traces of uranium from phosphoric acid, basically taking advantage of the fact that rock phosphate contains 60-150 parts for every million parts of uranium. The plant would be located adjacent to Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertiliser's wet phosphoric acid plant in Trombay and would produce uranium in the form of ammonium di-uranate. This material would be processed further by DAE's nuclear fuel complex at Hyderabad to prepare enriched uranium that can, subsequently, be used by nuclear power stations.
Indian Rare Earths Ltd , another public service utility under DAE, is also setting up demonstration plants to recover uranium from phosphoric acid, in addition to recovering uranium from various secondary sources such as thorium hydroxide concentrate and other metallurgical process residues, Government sources involved in the exercise said. (The Hindu June 30, 2008)
Addressing the Heavy Water Board (HWB) officials and engineers, he said "now NPCIL is hungry for uranium and we expect nuclear grade uranium from HWB soon," said S K Jain, chairman and managing director of Nuclear power Corporation of India (NPCIL). "Since HWB has accepted the challenge to produce nuclear grade uranium from phosphoric acid, the day may not be far when NPCIL will get uranium from HWB and India can go for electricity from PHWR beyond the current limit of 10,000 MW," Jain said. (Economic Times Feb. 17, 2008)
 

No Foreign Direct Investment permitted in uranium mining in India

In a move that sets a precedent for mining firms, the government has ruled out the entry of foreign players in the business of uranium mining, saying it is a strategic sector where it could not take chances. Following objections from the department of atomic energy, the Foreign Investment Promotion Board has turned down a proposal from UK's GoldStone Resources to hunt for the mineral, initially in Karnataka. GoldStone had proposed to set up a wholly-owned subsidiary in India to engage in exploration of diamond, gold and uranium palaeoplacers. (The Times of India July 23, 2007)  

Canadian firm ready for uranium exploration in India

Canadian exploration firm Magnum Uranium Corporation today said it plans to enter the country once the Indo-US nuclear cooperation deal is cleared.
"India's current consumption of Uranium is only 1,334 tonnes per year, which is expected to go up manifold once the US-India pact on civil nuclear cooperation comes into force. Hence, there is a big scope for us in India," MUC's President and CEO Craig Lindsay told PTI here. (New Kerala Nov. 24, 2006)  

UCIL investing in new uranium mines and uranium exploration

Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) will invest roughly Rs 31 billion [US$ 679 million] to open new mines and set up processing plants in Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Meghalaya. UCIL chairman-cum-managing director Ramendra Gupta said that the UCIL is investing Rs 6.5 billion [US$ 142 million] in Jharkhand alone. In addition, UCIL is exploring uranium deposits in Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan and Karnataka. (PTI June 6, 2006)
An investment of Rs 18 billion [US$ 393 million] is proposed for setting up two uranium mining and milling plants in Nalgonda and Kadapa districts in Andhra Pradesh, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission Anil Kakodkar said on June 8, 2006. (The Hindu June 9, 2006)  

India's nuclear generation stays behind due to uranium shortage

Another new unit at Kaiga in Karnataka has now been delayed on account of fuel shortage: According to minister of state for power Jairam Ramesh, unit four (220 MW) at Kaiga was scheduled to be commissioned in June 2008, but is now delayed by at least six months. Ramesh said that the June target of adding around 1300 MW of fresh capacity has "completely gone haywire" on account of fuel shortages. (Indian Express June 4, 2008) Fuel shortage has forced the Nuclear Power Corporation (NPCIL) to delay commissioning of two new units at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS). The two new units - RAPS 5 and 6 of 220 MWe each - were to be commissioned by February 2008 (RAPS 5 in August 2007 and RAPS 6 in February 2008). NPCIL officials told The Indian Express that fuel shortage has already forced nuclear power units to cut production levels from an average 80 per cent PLF (plant load factor) a couple of years ago to an average 40-50 per cent PLF. (Indian Express May 8, 2008)
Five of the 17 nuclear power plants in the country had been shut down and the remaining are operating at an average of less than 50 per cent capacity for want of fuel, a top official of the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited said. (PTI Oct. 21, 2007)
The fuel shortage situation has started telling on the performance of the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL). Currently operating nuclear power stations with a capacity of around 4,000 MWe, it has been forced to slash power production levels. The overall plant load factor (PLF) has come down from a high of 80-90 per cent to around 60 per cent in some three years - a drop of 30 per cent when there's power shortage in the country.
A delay in the commissioning of the milling system at the Jaduguda mines in Jharkhand is a major factor behind the current fuel shortage. Any further delays would lead to NPCIL cutting generation further "from 18 reactors" to around "50-55 per cent" in the next few months. If the fuel supply situation does not improve, generation from some units can stop in the next one or to two years. (Indian Express Aug. 20, 2007)
A mismatch between supply of fuel by the Uranium Corporation of India (UCIL) and demand triggered by India's fast-expanding nuclear power programme could hamper the progress of the Pressurized Heavy Water (PHWR) programme, nuclear industry sources said.
Due to the shortage of fuel, the 12 PHWRs run by Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) , a public sector undertaking of Department of Atomic Energy, are running at 65 per cent capacity (the new 540 MW plants Tarapur Atomic Power Project (TAPP) units 3 and 4 running at full capacity but after four months may face problems due to fuel) and this would definitely reduce the profitability of the company, NPCIL sources said.
The mismatch has been created due to NPCIL's demonstration to the world that it could have the power plant capacity up to 95 per cent and also its demonstration of reducing the gestation period of construction from 10 years to four and a half to five years, according to Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sources. (PTI Aug. 25, 2006)
In its mid-term appraisal of the 10th Plan , the Planning Commission had mentioned that the plant load factor achieved by the nuclear power stations had "gone down to 73.70 per cent in 2003-04, after reaching a high of 79.40 per cent in 2001-02. This is primarily due to non-availability of nuclear fuel because the development of domestic mines has not kept pace with addition of generating capacity." (p.329/330) However, the situation is likely to improve as Nuclear Power Corporation India Ltd. (NPCIL) anticipates import of uranium soon as the nuclear deal with the United States is approved.
In the ongoing 10th Plan (2002-2007), the 2,720 MW nuclear power capacity was to be augmented by 1,300 MW. But, capacity addition is likely to be 2,620 MW, twice the targeted increment. The 9th Plan had seen 880 MW capacity addition. The 11th Plan (2007-2012) would target an additional 3,000 MW in nuclear power generation, according to reports. (Project Monitor, June 2, 2006)
 

New uranium deposits discovered in central India

The department of atomic energy (DAE) has discovered uranium at three locations in central India and assessments suggest there are adequate mining reserves. Baldev Raj, a DAE director, said prospecting may be completed in the next 18 months, although he declined to divulge the locations for security reasons. "The DAE's atomic mineral division is in talks with all related parties and we are trying to expedite the whole process. At DAE, we are sure that these locations hold enough reserves for viable mining," he said. (Times of India, Dec. 6, 2005)  

India investing in new uranium mines

Uranium Corporation Of India Limited (UCIL) will invest Rs 20 billion (US$ 460 million) to open new mines and set up processing plants in Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Meghalaya, UCIL Chairman-cum-Managing Director R K Gupta said on March 19, 2005.
In Jharkand, apart from opening new mines at Bandurang, Bagjata and Moldih in the district, the construction for the processing plant at Turamdih has already begun; about Rs 7 billion (US$ 160 million) will be invested for these new projects, which were likely to be completed during the 10th Five Year Plan in 2007-08. The processing plant at Turamdih were likely to be completed by 2006-07. (PTI March 19, 2005)  


Uranium recovery from sea water (India)

India's BARC and France's CEA cooperate on development of uranium recovery from desalination plant brines

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) , France, are collaborating to develop three innovative and efficient methods of uranium extraction from the concentrated brine rejected by integrated nuclear desalination systems, which both partners are currently developing.
The first method uses resin-grafted with calixarene (a synthetic material, indecently expensive!); magnetic separation is the second method and the third uses a canal system using absorbents. These methods are highly selective but need further research and development. (The Hindu 12 Nov 2009)

India tests new method to extract uranium from sea water

Japan developed a technology by using plastic sheets to which amidoxime, which is capable of selectively absorbing uranium from seawater, is grafted by high energy electron beam irradiation. Scientists from the Desalination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre recovered uranium at milligram levels from sea water using electron beam grafted amidoxime. They developed a semi pilot scale facility to produce radiation grafted sheets of 1 metre x 1 metre size. They collected about 800 microgrammes of uranium in five campaigns from CIRUS Jettyhead; about 1.8 milligrammes from the seawater intake and outfall canals at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station and around 200 microgrammes from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Though these amounts are trivial, it gives confidence in the technology. Field trials carried out at the three locations gave concentration factors of 300, 600 and 700 for the submergence of the absorbent material for 12, 14 and 23 days respectively. (The Hindu 12 Nov 2009) The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has reported "significant progress" in its attempts to bio-recover uranium from sea water and dilute nuclear waste using natural and genetically-engineered microbes. BARC's attempts to viably extricate uranium from sea water have also begun yielding "very positive" results, according to officials. Sea water is known to contain uranium but the low concentration of the nuclear fuel and high cost of its extraction has traditionally inhibited the option of commercial sourcing of uranium from the seas. The BARC method involves passing sea water through a specially made polymer that will absorb uranium selectively. According to estimates, nearly 4.6 billion tonnes of uranium are estimated to be present in sea water, with Japanese scientists in the 1980s having demonstrated that extraction of uranium from sea water using ion-exchangers was feasible. (The Hindu June 30, 2008)
The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in Mumbai has developed a method for extracting uranium from sea water, according to the BARC annual report. The BARC method involves passing sea water through a specially made radiation induced polymer that will selectively absorb uranium. Laboratory studies showed that the material could absorb as much as 45 per cent of uranium present in sea water. The report said that on the basis of laboratory data, BARC is getting ready to build, in the first step, a bench scale plant that will produce 100 grams of uranium per year from sea water. Bigger plants will be decided after working out the cost benefit analysis. (Times of India Feb. 25, 2003)
 

Jharkhand

General · Mohuldih · Baghjanta · Bandugurang

> See also Issues for: Operating Mines · Decommissioning Projects · Legislation & Regulations
> See also Data for: Deposits, Proposed and Active Mines · Old Mines and Decommissioning


General

UCIL proposes uranium recovery from copper tailings in Jharkhand

UCIL "proposes to construct two uranium recovery plants for recovery of uranium from copper tailings of M/s Hindustan Copper Ltd's operations at Rakha and Surda mines." (48th Annual Report 2014-15, Uranium Corporation of India Limited)

Uranium Corporation of India gets lease for four mines in Jharkhand

The East Singhbhum district administration has finally okayed a long-delayed mining lease for the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) opening up over 1,500 acres of virgin territory for the Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) on the threshold of expanding its operations. The lease has identified 433.42 acres of land in Banduhurang-Kerudungri, 253.44 acres in Kerudungri-Talsa, 303.14 acres in Bagjata-Phuljhori and 557.18 acres in Purihata-Kerudungri of East Singhbhum.
"The Centre had approved the expansion project way back in 2003. The file for lease agreement was pending with the mining department for quite sometime. The lease has finally been finalised and UCIL can now go ahead and start mining operations in these areas," said an official of the district mining department. The official explained the delay by citing various "procedures" that needed to be followed before granting a mining lease. Most of the areas opened up for UCIL are near the company's mining facility at Jadugoda that was operationalised in 1967, making it the oldest uranium mine in the country. (The Telegraph Aug. 7, 2008) Even as Delhi was agog with high-voltage drama and controversy over what is being described an effort to secure steady supply of nuclear resources for the nation, major progress was made here on July 22, 2008, in clearing the way for lease deeds for four new uranium mines of Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) and all other pending outstanding issues between it and the state. Sources told that a high-level meeting, chaired by Jharkhand chief secretary AK Basu, decided that all hindrances in the way of speedy accomplishment of land acquisition for UCIL would be removed. (Ranchi Express July 23, 2008)

Mohuldih project (Jharkhand)

(also spelled Mahuldih) > View deposit info
> View more recent issues


Mohuldih uranium mine commissioned

On April 17, 2012, Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) commissioned its last mining project in the state - an underground mine at Mohuldih in Rajnagar block of Seraikela-Kharsawan district, about 25 km from Jamshedpur.
Speaking after the commissioning, chairman-cum-managing director of the public sector unit Diwakar Acharya said the uranium ore found during exploration at the site was not high grade, but the proximity to a milling unit at Turamdih 7 km away, made UCIL opt for the project. "The reserve at the mine is around 6.2 MT but it is of a low grade (0.034 per cent uranium). The only thing working for this project was the proximity to Turamdih. The ores after mining would be taken for processing at the milling unit," said Acharya, adding that the project was UCIL's last in the state. (The Telegraph Apr. 18, 2012)

UCIL investing in new uranium mines and uranium exploration

According to UCIL chairman-cum-managing director Ramendra Gupta, the Mahuldih project is likely to be completed by 2010. (PTI June 6, 2006)

Hearing held on Mahuldih uranium mine project

On Dec. 20, 2005, another hearing was held at Mahuldih on the proposed uranium mine. Access of outside environmentalists was prevented by non-official armed persons. Jharkhandi Organisation Against Radiation (JOAR) was not even permitted to file a written submission. The radiation issue was nevertheless raised by several local villagers. It appeared that more villagers than at the previous hearing were ready to sell their land to UCIL, but they made several demands regarding financial compensation. UCIL has not decided yet on these and announced to hold another meeting within 15 days. (Hindustan Times 21 Dec. 2005; JOAR)

Ranchi University teachers join campaign against Mahuldih uranium mine

Eight professors and lecturers from various colleges of Ranchi University have joined the Anti-Nuclear Power Plant and Mining Front, an organization of academics and social activists, vowing to undertake research work on the harmful impact of radiation on workers and people living in the vicinity of UCIL's Jadugoda and Rakha mines. They have categorically voiced their opposition to UCIL's proposed uranium mines at Mahuldih. (Hindustan Times 19 Dec. 2005)

Jharkhand state Pollution Control Board sides with Mahuldih residents on uranium mine project

The Jharkhand state Pollution Control Board (JSPCB) has turned a sympathizer of the villagers and termed their demands 'just' and 'genuine'. JSPCB has also won several hearts in Mahuldih village by promising them to fight for their causes before holding the public hearing to get their 'invaluble' land for uranium mining.
Speaking to the media persons, the board chairman, Tileshwar Sahu, made it clear that JSPCB would not issue No Objection Certificate (NOC) to the UCIL until it settles the compensation issue with the residents of Mahuldih. (Ranchi Express Aug. 31, 2005)

Residents keep Pollution Control Board from holding hearing on proposed Mohuldih uranium mine project

On August 29, 2005, the struggle against radioactivity of JOAR (Jharkhandi Organisation Against Radiation) reached a new dimension at the occasion of the public hearing scheduled for the proposed Mohuldih mines. The villagers of Mohuldih and more than 10 other affected villages unanimously declared that they do not want uranium mines at the expense of their land and livelihood. They forced the Jharkhand Pollution Control Board (PCB) officials and officials of UCIL to retreat when they had come for conducting the public hearing at Mohuldih. "We will give our lives but not our land" was their united slogan.
The public hearing which was initially scheduled to be held on the 5th of August had already once been postponed to the 29th by the demand of the people of the area. However, even today when the PCB and UCIL officials arrived for the hearing, they were not even allowed to enter the site of the public hearing by the villagers. Men and women from more than 12 villages around Mohuldih, which would be affected by the proposed Mohuldih mines, opposed the hearing, stating that they neither need a hearing nor a uranium mine. They declared to the officials that they would not let go of their land in any circumstance. "The mine will last for 30 years; what will happen to us after that? Our land has supported us for generations and will continue to do so", they stated. "We have seen what has happened to the villagers who have been displaced by the other uranium mines. They have not got any facilities, which were promised to them, none of the promises made of rehabilitation has been fulfilled. We cannot rely on their false promises and lose our livelihood", they said.
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the project is riddled with faults, according to JOAR. It was prepared by Mecon Consultants on behalf of UCIL. "Nowhere in the entire report has any mention been made of the radioactive health hazards, not even to state that there will be no hazard, completely denying the health aspects of uranium radiation," says an activist from the Human Rights Law Network. (JOAR Aug. 29, 2005)

Baghjanta project (Jharkhand)

(also spelled Bagjata) > View deposit info
> View more recent issues
 
On Dec. 1, 2008, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) chairman Anil Kakodkar inaugurated the Bagjata mine belonging to Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (Ucil). The Bagjata mine, which took three years and a capital investment of Rs 950 million [US$ 19 million] to be built, will have a 500-tonne per day output that will be transported to nearby Jadugoda for processing. (Financial Express Dec. 1, 2008)
According to UCIL chairman-cum-managing director Ramendra Gupta, the Bagjata project is likely to be completed by 2008. (PTI June 6, 2006)

Public involvement obstructed for Baghjanta uranium mine project

A public hearing by the Jharkhand Pollution Control Board (PCB) on the proposed underground uranium mine at Baghjanta, East Singhbhum District of Jharkhand, originally scheduled for August 20, 2004 has been postponed to Sep. 18, 2004. Intervenors have not been able to obtain copies of the full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the project, let alone any copies in native language, in spite of repeated requests to the PCB. Also, details on the planned resettlement scheme have not been made available.
A site visit at the Baghjanta village on Aug. 20, 2004, showed that UCIL had already started construction work on the mine without having obtained a No-Objection Certificate (NOC) from PCB. (JOAR Aug. 20, 2004) UCIL had begun underground mining at Baghjanta in 1986, but had to close down production in 1991. At the public hearing held on Sep. 18, 2004, the villagers welcomed the resumption of uranium mining at Baghjanta for its economic effects, but placed certain demands to UCIL, most of which rotated around development of the region. "We would prefer to suffer from radiation than die of hunger", said Thakura Hansda, president of the local village committee.
Environmentalists who wanted to attend the hearing were not enabled to raise their concerns. They had found that the Executive Summary of the EIA, which was obtained after much argument, were environmentally blind. Supposedly a report for a uranium mine, it had only two small paragraphs on the radiation aspects, with no mention whatsoever about the effects which uranium radiation might have on health of the population, the environment or the agricultural ecology, and the means taken to address them is not a part of the report. (The Hindustan Times, The Telegraph, JOAR Sep. 18, 2004)

Bandugurang project (Jharkhand)

(also spelled Banduhurang, Bandurang) > View deposit details
> View more recent issues

Bandugurang open pit mine inaugurated

Bandugurang, UCIL's first open pit mine, was inaugurated on June 25, 2007. It would produce 2,400 tons uranium ore per day. (Times of India, June 25, 2007)

UCIL seeks police help as displaced people disrupt mining

The Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) has sought the help of East Singhbhum district administration after displaced people stalled mining at Bandhuhurang-Keuradungri opencast mines from May 1, 2007.
Villagers told mediapersons that alleged difference in land rates being offered to the displaced had provoked the villagers to come under the banner of Turamdih Displaced Committee (TDC) being led by Demka Soy and force the closure of Banhuhurang-Keuradunglri mines. (Ranchi Express 5 May 2007)

Bandugurang project to be completed by 2007

According to UCIL chairman-cum-managing director Ramendra Gupta, the Banduhurang project is likely to be completed by 2007. (PTI June 6, 2006)

State Pollution Control Board has No Objection to Bandugurang uranium mine project

The Pollution Control Board (PCB) of Jharkhand State, India has given the No-Objection Certificate (NOC) to the Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) to undertake opencast uranium mining at Bandugurang, East Singhbhum District of Jharkhand State on 8th April 2004. The Jharkhandi Organisation Against Radiation (JOAR) considers this as a case of clear violation of the existing rules of the PCB and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) public hearing, since no full-length copy of the EIA had been made available.
UCIL plans to construct an additional uranium mill at Turamdi (5 km from Bundugurang), where an underground uranium mine is already operating.

Telangana

> View extra page


Andhra Pradesh

> View extra page


Karnataka

General · Gogi

> See also Issues for: Operating Mines · Decommissioning Projects · Legislation & Regulations
> See also Data for: Deposits, Proposed and Active Mines · Old Mines and Decommissioning


General

Uranium drilling to move out of village after complaints about drinking water pollution: Uranium mining is being moved out of Gujanal village in Gokak taluk of Belagavi district after complaints from villagers that deep drilling was making borewell water smell foul.
Scientists from the central Atomic Minerals Directorate For Exploration And Research (AMDER) have confirmed to The Hindu that drilling would be moved out of inhabited areas in the village. Officers on site have clarified, however, that it is not a case of leakage of radioactive material and there was no need for alarm. "We are shifting, and this has been communicated to the district administration," an officer said. The directorate has been doing a pilot study of uranium mining in Gujanal and two other villages in Belagavi district. While mining in Deshnoor and Suladhal are far from inhabited areas, the drilling points in Gujanal are within settlements.
Gujanal residents have been complaining that the mining was polluting groundwater. "Water in around five wells in the village has a foul smell. We are unable to drink it or use it for washing or bathing," they said, in their complaint to the government. They suspect that coolant and other chemicals used in drilling have seeped into the water. Balesh Mugalihal, a resident, said some families who had consumed the water were suffering from acidity and headache. (The Hindu June 9, 2017) Uranium mining to start in Bhima belt soon: Rich uranium deposits, a major element in nuclear power generation and its related activities, has been found in the Bhima river belt of Karnataka, ranging from Sedam in Gulbarga district to Muddebihal in Bijapur district.
According to Regional Director Ashwini Kumar Rai of the Atomic Mineral Directorate for Exploration and Research, Southern Region, Bangalore, uranium deposits found at Gogi in Shahapur taluk, about 80 km from here, are the second best in quality, only after deposits found in Jharkhand.
At present, Ashwini Rai said uranium mining was going on only in about eight acres of land and it has been decided to carry out mining in 238 acres of land in Gulbarga district, Gogi and its surroundings. A proposal has been sent to the Deputy Commissioner for acquiring 238 acres of land to carry out uranium mining. Deposits have been found in Uakkanal, Darshanapur, Hotapet in Shahapur taluk apart from Gogi, and in and around Tinthini in Surapur taluk.
Replying to a question, Rai said that right now the uranium extracted in Gogi will be utilised for nuclear power generation. However, he did not rule out the possibility of utilising it for other purposes. (Deccan Herald Nov. 17, 2009)
Retired additional director of Central Nuclear Mineral Directorate Dr S A Pandit said, that uranium deposits are found at four places in the state namely Balkunjagudde in Andar near Karkala, Chikmagalur, Arabail in Uttara Kannada and Gogi in Gulbarga district.
Speaking at a symposium on Indo-American nuclear deal organized in the city by Energy Support Initiatives here on Thursday August 21, he said that uranium deposits were detected near Karkala as far back as in 1978 itself. Mining has commenced at Gogi recently [?] and the uranium found there is of the highest quality among the ores found anywhere in the country, he explained. (Daijiworld, Aug. 22, 2008)
 

Gogi mine (Yadgir district, formerly Gulbarga district)

> View deposit info Villagers oppose proposed uranium mine and mill at Gogi: Activists of Bhoomi Tayi Horata Samiti and residents of Gogi village staged a protest outside the Deputy Commissioner's office in Yadgir on Thursday (Feb. 16) and urged the Union and State governments not to resume uranium mining in the village. They also opposed the proposed nuclear power plant in the village. (The Hindu Feb. 17, 2017)
UCIL restarts process to obtain environment clearance for suspended Gogi uranium mining project: The fallout of India's attempts to get into the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) seems to have caused ripples in the arid hinterlands of Yadgir district. Four years after the ambitious large-scale uranium mining project was suspended in the Bhima Basin in and around Gogi village, the mining project seems to be finally picking up steam. With their eyes set on an estimated 500 tonnes of high-grade Uranium-238 - the critical fuel of nuclear power plants in the country - Uranium Corporation India Ltd. (UCIL) has restarted the process to obtain environment clearance.
Explaining the sudden thrust for the long-suspended project, Ajay Ghade, General Manager (Technical Services & Planning), Mines, UCIL, said: "There are doubts over NSG, so the Union government is focusing on uranium deposits in the country itself. A string of nuclear power stations will be going online in the next few years, and we need to ensure a constant supply of nuclear rods." (The Hindu July 8, 2016)
State resumes land acquisition for Gogi uranium mine in spite of Union government order to scrap the project: Upset with the decision of authorities of the revenue department to resume acquisition of land around Saidapur, Diggi and Gogi villages for extraction of Uranium, farmers of Yadgir district have decided to resume their agitation as well as approach the court for justice. Farmers were relieved when the Union ministry of environment and forests issued an order scrapping the mining unit three months ago. District authorities, however, continued with the process of acquisition of land after halting it temporarily. (Deccan Chronicle Sep. 8, 2013)
People's court orders new hearing for Gogi uranium mine and mill project: A regional Lok Adalat (People's court) on environment chaired by High Court Judge Justice D V Shailendrakumar has directed Pollution Control Board and Department of Environment to hold public hearing once again on uranium mining at Gogi village of Shahapur taluka. Chairing the Regional Lok Adalat on Saturday (Sep. 15), Shailendrakumar observed that norms were not followed when the public hearing was conducted on uranium mining earlier at Gogi village. (IBN Sep. 16, 2012)
UCIL, state sign MoU for Gogi uranium mine and mill project: The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd and Karnataka has signed a Memorandum of Understanding to set up a uranium ore mining and processing Plant in Karnataka. UCIL proposed to invest Rs 5.5 billion [US$ 98 million] in the plant at Gogi, Saidapur, Diggi and Umardoddi villages at Shahapur taluk of Karnataka's Yadgir district, a UCIL release said here today. The Karnataka government would help UCIL to obtain permissions, registrations, approvals and clearances from the concerned departments as per the existing policies and rules and regulations of the state government, it said. The project was expected to begin in 2013 and provide employment to 361, it said. (Outlook India June 18, 2012)
Environmental clearance issued for Gogi uranium mine project: Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) has secured environmental clearance for the development of its Gogi uranium reserves in the southern Indian province of Karnataka, and would adopt mobile mining technology for the project. “Gogi has a very small deposit but of very high-grade uranium and it would be most cost effective to use mobile mining for extraction of the resource,” UCIL chairperson Diwakar Acharya said. The mobile or retractable mining technology to be adopted would incorporate a feeding, screening, crushing and processing plant on a single mobile platform. (Mining Weekly Mar. 1, 2012)
Karnataka Minister wants state government to halt uranium exploration at Gogi: Opposing uranium mining at a village in Karnatka on grounds of health hazard, state Minister for Small Scale Industries Raju Gowda today said he would press the BJP Government to cancel the permission given to Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) for the project. The project for mining uranium in Gogi village in the newly created Yadgir district in the northern part of the state if allowed would pose "a grave health hazard" to the people, Gowda, who is also minister in-charge of the district, said. Speaking to reporters after holding consultations with people of the Gogi village, elected representatives from the area, scientists and experts here, the Minister said he would soon meet Chief Minister D V Sadananda Gowda to cancel the permission given to UCIL for undertaking uranium mining.
The state Government in July last accorded in-principle approval to UCIL to undertake mining uranium and consented to allot 102 hectares in Gogi village for the purpose. When his attention was drawn to the consent given by some farmers to part with their land for uranium mining, Gowda said they were unaware of the health hazard the activity posed and its impact on environment. He said the UCIL had already commenced its operations and dug up 273 metre-long tunnel and was discharging effluents into a nearby tank. He claimed that the exploration work had caused health problems to several people. UCIL has been engaged in uranium exploratory work in the village since 2007. (Deccan Herald Nov. 16, 2011)
State Task Force report points at health hazard from effluent releases at proposed Gogi uranium mine site: The Western Ghats Task Force (a special initiative of Govt. of Karnataka) has alleged that the Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) has created serious health hazards at Gogi village in Yadgir district, by letting out effluents from its uranium testing site into a lake, which is a source of drinking water to the villagers.
In a nine-page 'feedback' report, prepared by the Task Force on the proposed uranium mining and processing project at Gogi, Task Force Chairman Anant Hegde Ashisar said the villagers are worried about the contamination of the drinking water source. Besides, several borewells drilled by the UCIL to ascertain the density of uranium deposits have caused harmful effects on the ecology. "The villagers are, therefore, facing severe health problems. The drinking water contamination problem should be addressed immediately," he has said. The Government should look into the concerns raised by the people before giving final clearance to the project. The State High Level Clearance Committee headed by the Chief Minister has already accorded in-principle approval to the project.
The Task Force has also recommended to the Government to stop acquisition of land for the project, until people's apprehensions were addressed. The Government should also consider the views of the local body, on priority. The Gogi gram panchayat had requested the Government to stop the survey and mining work in the village, as several were suffering from skin diseases due to contamination of the drinking water, the report stated.
The Task Force recommended the Government to get “authentic” and “reliable” reports on health and environment safety issues before taking the final decision on giving permission to the proposed project. (Deccan Herald Nov. 11, 2011)
State gives approval for uranium mining at Gogi: Even as concerns of health and environmental hazards remain unsettled, the State government has given its much-awaited approval for the project proposal - uranium ore mining and processing plant - of the Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) at Gogi and other villages in Shahapur taluk of Yadgir district, about 80 km from Gulbarga.
With this, the controversial project has crossed a major hurdle although it is required to obtain the all-important environmental clearances from the State and Central agencies. The State accorded the 'in-principle approval' at the recent State High-Level Clearance Committee meeting to the Central undertaking for carrying out mining and processing operations at Gogi, Saidapur, Diggi, Umardoddi Khanapur and Shakapur villages of Shahapur taluk.
The UCIL has proposed to invest Rs 5.5 billion [US$ 111 million], generating employment to only 361 persons. The State has also decided to extend infrastructure facilities like land, water and power, besides incentives and concessions as envisaged in the industrial policy of the State. The company is permitted to acquire 306.40 acres of land under Section 109 of the Karnataka Land Reforms Act in the said villages while obtaining permission from the Shahapur Town Planning Authority. The UCIL will require 1.08 million litres a day of water for its activities and the same will be made available from River Bhima. The project proponent will have to file a separate application to the Water Resource Department for water allocation. It will require 8100 kVA of power, which will have to be serviced by the Gulbarga Electricity Supply Company.
The State government has put forth certain conditions, which are general in nature and applicable to all other project proposals. They include securing Consent For Establishment from the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board and environmental clearance from the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests. The UCIL has been asked to prepare a plan for development of human resources required for the project, train local people and provide employment. "The company should take all measures with regard to environment, well being of the persons living in and around the project. The local people should be educated and informed about the project, safety measures adopted and the steps taken by the company to avoid any environmental hazards," an order issued by the Commerce and Industries Secretariat said.
The UCIL has plans to extract 150 tonnes of uranium per year in the form of sodium diuranate (SDU) salt for about 15 years. The uranium ore reserves of Gogi are approximately 3,077 tonnes. Uranium mining lease is spread over 39.13 ha of Gogi while the site of processing is spread over 102.23 ha under Saidapur, Diggi, and Umardoddi. It will produce 150,000 tonnes of uranium ore, which will be processed to extract 150 tonnes of SDU per year. The uranium extracted as crude salt will be trucked to the Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad for further processing. The minerable reserves of uranium ore are adequate for 15 years with a rated capacity of 500 tonnes a day. (Deccan Herald Nov. 8, 2011)
Gogi residents demand relocation before start of uranium mine: People of K Gogi village in Yadgir have demanded that they should be shifted out before starting the uranium processing plant there. "We have no objection if the unit comes up in the village. Causing loss to the nation is also not our intention. Also, we are not strong enough to face big companies. We are worried about the consequences for our future generations. Please shift our village," the people told Ananth Hegde Ashisara, chairman of the Western Ghats Task Force and vice-chairman of the Bio-Diversity Board, who visited the village on Saturday (Sep. 10).
Allauddin Babu Pasha, who spoke on behalf of the people in Gogi, said uranium testing had begun in the village and many people here were already suffering from various ailments because of this. Effluents from the uranium testing site are being let into the tank in the village, thereby contaminating the water. If this is the situation in the initial stages, Pasha feared a worse scenario when full-fledged uranium mining begins. (Deccan Herald Sep. 10, 2011)
Local committee clears uranium mining in Gogi: The hurdles placed by Gogi and surrounding villages of Shahapur taluk to uranium mining in the area were cleared after a local committee consisting of two prominent doctors of Yadgir district submitted a report on the safety aspects of uranium mining. The committee opined that uranium mining and ore processing can be carried out with minimum or little hazard to the operating personnel and people with good technology, commitment to personnel and environmental safety and sound environmental management practices. After visiting both proposed Gogi uranium mine site and Jaduguda, the committee recommended to the government to allow UCIL to carry out uranium mining on condition that it should follow 20 recommendations made by it. (ExpressBuzz Sep. 10, 2011)
UCIL to invest US$ 124 million in Gogi uranium mine project: Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) will invest at least Rs 25 billion [US$ 561 million] during the 12th plan in new mine projects in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. "The investment [...] will cost [...] Rs 5.5 billion [US$ 124 million] for a new mine [in] Karnataka," UCIL Director, Technical D Acharya said here today. (PTI July 27, 2011)
Gogi uranium mine gets state approval, before report of expert committee is discussed: Karnataka is closer to having India's next uranium mine as Chief Minister B S Yeddyurappa approved mining at Gogi village in Yadgir district's Shahapur taluk on Thursday (July 14). The approval comes after nearly four years of exploration in the area. The uranium mine will have a life of 15 years during which it will supply fuel to nuclear power plants in southern India.
Though the approval by the state government's High Level Clearance Committee (HLCC) brings the project closer to implementation, it still needs to get clearance from Union Ministry of Environment and Forestry before Uranium Corporation of India Ltd can carry out commercial mining and set up processing mills.
“The total deposit of uranium oxide is 4,250 tonnes. It's a high grade deposit with 0.1 per cent uranium. This is as good as the deposit in Meghalaya. In comparison the ore in Jadugoda (Jharkhand) is inferior with only 0.05-0.06 per cent uranium,” a senior official in the department of atomic energy who does not wished to be named, told Deccan Herald. The mine and mills, which would be spread over 40 hectares, had been opposed by local residents and elected representatives who feared it would cause  health hazards. (Deccan Herald July 15, 2011)
The approval has come as a huge surprise to the people, even as the committee of experts submitted its report last week over the ill-effects of uranium mining and precautions to be taken. The committee was formed following an unanimous decision taken at a meeting jointly organised by the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board and the Uranium Corporation of India on November 16, 2010, at Gogi. Following an appeal by the Yadgir Deputy Commissioner, a team led by Dr Madhukavi and cancer specialist Dr Shekhar Patil had visited the mining areas on February 2, 2011. Mallanna Parivana, convenor of the Bhoomitayi Horata Samiti, said that the government's approval, even before studying the pros and cons mentioned in the report, would sound the death knell for the people.
People in Gogi said that 500 borewells drilled to look for and ascertain the density of the uranium deposits in the area had led to harmful effects on the people. Contaminated water had also been released from the mining areas, allege the people. (Deccan Herald July 15, 2011)
UCIL denies access to detailed project report on Gogi uranium mine project, releases summary (!) of EIA upon appeal:
The proposed uranium mining and processing plant at Gogi in Shahapur Taluk of Yadgir District is expected to extract 150 tonnes of uranium a year in the form of sodium diuranate (SDU) salt for about 15 years. The Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) is all set to exploit the techno-commercially viable deposits at Gogi, said to contain uranium ore of higher quality among all the existing mines in the country.
Although the UCIL has refused to part with a copy of the detailed project report (DPR) sought by Deccan Herald under the Right To Information Act, the former, however, has made available a copy of executive summary of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA). After the UCIL Public Information Officer denied access to DPR and EIA, an appeal was made before the appellate authority and subsequently UCIL Director (Technical) D Acharya who is the appellate authority has provided the summary of the EIA. According to him, the DPR was under the consideration of Government of India.
The preliminary exploration conducted by the Atomic Mineral Directorate (AMD), a constituent of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) for exploration and research has established mineralisation over a strike length of 2 km. The ore reserves of Gogi are approximately 3,077 tonnes of uranium. The UCIL, however, is yet to obtain a few important statutory clearances for uranium mining such as environment clearance, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board clearance, grant of mining lease, etc. Once clearances are obtained, mining and processing will begin.
As many as four villages of Shahapur taluk will come in direct contact of the mining and processing activities. Uranium mining lease is spread over 39.13 hectares of land of Gogi village while the site of the proposed ore processing plant is spread over 102.23 hectares  under three villages Saidapur, Diggi and Umardoddi.
The mine will produce 150,000 tonnes of uranium ore a year that will be processed to extract 150 tonnes of uranium as SDU a year. The uranium extracted as crude salt will be trucked to Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, which is about 250 km from Gogi, for further processing. The minerable reserves of uranium ore are adequate for 15 years mine life with rated capacity of 500 tonnes a day.
Presently, exploratory mining is being carried out at Gogi Uranium Mine. Shaft sinking of five-metre diameter has already been started and a 135 m shaft has been sunk. The total length of 225 metres of the shaft will be sunk before mining begins. (Deccan Herald May 3, 2011)
Karnataka State government commits to permit uranium mining at Gogi only if posing no health or environmental hazards:
The State government will allow Uranium Corporation of India (UCI) to mine uranium at Gogi village in Shahapur taluk in Gulbarga, only after confirming that the operation does not pose any health or environmental hazards. Higher Education Minister V S Acharya told the Legislative Council on Tuesday (Mar. 8) that UCI had sought permission to conduct uranium mining on 39.13 hectares in Gogi village, which has about 2,681 metric tonnes of uranium deposits. The application seeking mining lease is under the government's consideration, he said. Acharya was replying - on behalf of the chief minister who holds the mining portfolio - to a question raised by Manohar Maski who alleged that UCI had started mining in the area and the local people were complaining of health problems.
The minister said UCI had also filed an application before the Union Ministry of Mines seeking permission to set up an uranium processing unit at Gogi. The Karnataka State Pollution Control Board held a public hearing in this regard on November 16 last year.
Denying allegations that UCI had already started mining operations at Gogi, Acharya said the company was only conducting a few tests and experiments. The State government had not sanctioned the lease to the firm, he said. Besides, he said, the government had issued directions to the Health Department officials to send a detailed report on complaints that local residents were facing health problems because of uranium mining. (Deccan Herald Mar. 8, 2011)
Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. (UCIL) is all set to begin mining uranium ore in 40 hectares of land in Gogi village of Shahapur taluk in Yadgir district. The public hearing on the proposed project was held in Gogi village on November 18, and UCIL is now awaiting final clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Official sources told The Hindu here on Thursday (Nov. 25) that the ministry had already given environmental clearance for the exploratory mine in May 2007, and a formal application for mining in 39.133 hectares was submitted on February 24.
Initial processing of the uranium ore will be done at the processing plant to be set up at Saidapur, Diggi and Umaradoddi villages, 6 km from the mining area.
Sources said there was no threat of radiation from mining uranium ore in Gogi. The initial study conducted by UCIL said there would not be any significant radiological impact on the local population. (The Hindu Nov. 26, 2010)
The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) is all set to start the long-awaited uranium mining at Gogi in Shahapur taluk of Yadgir district. After having successfully carried out a series of field trials the UCIL has now come to the final stage and the uranium processing unit will be established at the nearby Diggi village.
Based on positive results of exploration activities performed near Gogi, UCIL has prepared a feasibility report and has sent a proposal to the Centre seeking clearnace for putting up a 500-TPD (tonnes per day) mine and a uranium processing unit, UCIL Executive Director N M Bahl has stated in a communication to Ramannagouda Kollur, a resident of Gogi. The actual mining and processing of uranium is likely to start in about two years after completing all the formalities. Uranium deposits sufficient for mining for a period of 15 years are available in Gogi. In future, UCIL plans to utilise the uranium deposits in the Bhima belt from Sedam in Gulbarga to Muddebihal in Bijapur.
The Gogi unit, estimated to cost Rs 5.5 billion [US$ 122 million], is expected to make the country self-sufficient in uranium. The clearances from the State and the Central governments are expected to be obtained in October this year. Gogi uranium unit is the third in the country, after Jaduguda in Jharkhand and Pulivendula in Andhra Pradesh. Rich uranium deposits have been found in the Gogi belt covering the villages of  Gogi, Ukkinal, Darshanapur in Shahapur taluk, and Thinthini and other places in Surapur taluk. Uranium processed here will be used for defence and power generation purpose.
The UCIL has sent a proposal for acquiring 200 acres of land of Saidapur and Umaradoddi villages and 4 (1) notification has already been issued. The site surrounded by hillocks on three sides is stated to be ideal for processing. In Gogi village trial mining has been done in an area of 4.27 acres. (Deccan Herald May 14, 2010)
Shahapur taluk (county) tax collector Janardhan Upadhya confirmed that they had received a letter from Atomic Research Centre (ARC), Hyderabad, asking for requisition of 100 acres of land. He said the revenue department would submit a proposal to the Karnataka government so that they could acquire the land, using the "Urgency Clause", under section 17 of the Land Acquisition Act since the Union government needed the land.
But the Gogi gram panchayat (local government) is up in arms over the proposal to mine uranium in the village. It has decided to request the government to instruct ARC to close its survey/mining work in the village. The local government in its resolution has said that many people were suffering from skin diseases as effluents from drilling were mixing with the drinking water; they said that drilling was polluting water in the bore-wells as well. (ExpressBuzz June 30, 2009)
Exploration by the Hyderabad-based Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMDER) has found large traces of uranium in Gogi village in the Bhima River basin in Shahapur taluk (county).
"Experts say we have one of the richest grade of uranium in the world below us," sources in the district administration said. AMDER officials have written to the state government that the Gogi project has yielded large deposits of high-quality uranium. They have also said uranium mining at this site would turn out to be economically viable. According to a report submitted to the DC's office, a borehole dug to the depth of 80 metres revealed more than 0.1% uranium oxide, the highest value of uranium deposit found outside Canada [!?].
Following this, AMDER has called for tenders from experienced miners to develop an underground mine. The work, estimated to cost Rs 13.5 crore [US$ 2.8 million], is expected to be completed in 36 months. (Times of India June 30, 2009)
Evaluation of economic viability of the uranium deposit at Gogi in Gulbarga district of Karnataka is in progress. (UCIL Annual Report 2005-2006)


Rajasthan

General · Rohil - Ghateswar

> See also Issues for: Operating Mines · Decommissioning Projects · Legislation & Regulations
> See also Data for: Deposits, Proposed and Active Mines · Old Mines and Decommissioning


General

Village water claimed to be contaminated by uranium exploration

Jahaj village panchayat area of Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan has been devastated with contamination of water resources and sinking water tables. The locals have been alleging the situation on uranium exploration exercise held in the region by central government agencies. Amid the deteriorating situation, the public health engineering department minister of the state on Monday (Mar. 20) announced to get the issue investigated. (The Statesman Mar. 20, 2017)

Uranium exploration approved at Khandela and Raghunathgarh in Sikar district, Rajasthan

The Union forest and environment ministry has given the green signal to Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMDER) to explore uranium in Sikar district. Since it is a forest area, it needed the environmental clearance from the Centre. After approval, the state forest department has allowed AMDER to conduct the exploration. State principal chief conservator of forest (PCCF) Abhijeet Ghosh said that the exploration work, spread over an area of 1,000 hectares of forest land in Khandela and 150 hectares in Raghunathgarh, is expected to be completed in two years. (The Times of India Jan. 11, 2009)

Rohil - Ghateswar deposit (Sikar district)

> View deposit info Evaluation of economic viability of the uranium deposit at Rohil - Ghateswar in Sikar district of Rajasthan is in progress. (UCIL Annual Report 2005-2006)


Chhattisgarh

General · Bodal

> See also Issues for: Operating Mines · Decommissioning Projects · Legislation & Regulations
> See also Data for: Deposits, Proposed and Active Mines · Old Mines and Decommissioning


Bodal deposit (Rajnandagaon district)

> View deposit info Evaluation and resource estimation of the Bodal uranium deposit, Rajnandagaon district, Chhattisgarh was completed in 1985. (UCIL Milestones)


Assam

General

> See also Issues for: Operating Mines · Decommissioning Projects · Legislation & Regulations
> See also Data for: Deposits, Proposed and Active Mines · Old Mines and Decommissioning


General

ONGC zeroes in on Assam site for uranium exploration

In a boost to the flagging domestic uranium mining effort, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) has zeroed in on a location in Assam and has submitted a proposal to Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) for jointly exploring the resource. The public sector oil major has an agreement in place with UCIL to pursue exploration and exploitation of uranium resources. (The Hindu Sep. 29, 2009)


Tamil Nadu

General · Cauvery · Rasimalai

> See also Issues for: Operating Mines · Decommissioning Projects · Legislation & Regulations
> See also Data for: Deposits, Proposed and Active Mines · Old Mines and Decommissioning


Cauvery

The state-run Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) has started mining for uranium in the Cauvery area in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu in partnership with Uranium Corp. of India, the chairman said. (Bloomberg Aug. 4, 2011)

Rasimalai

The Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD) for Exploration and Research (Southern Region) of the Department of Atomic Energy, has extended its exploration activity in Rasimalai hilltop in Vellore Forest Division till September 2014, to collect bulk samples for discovering deposits of rare minerals. (Indian Express Jan. 8, 2014)


Meghalaya

> View extra page
           


 http://www.wise-uranium.org/upin.html  



---------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------



India’s nuclear industry pours its wastes into a river of death and disease

 

December 17, 2015

Scientists say nuclear workers, village residents, and children living near mines and factories are falling ill after persistent exposure to unsafe radiation


 On August 21, 2014, however, a justice in this state’s court ordered an official inquiry into allegations that the nuclear industry has exposed tens of thousands of workers and villagers to dangerous levels of radiation, heavy metals or other carcinogens, including arsenic, from polluted rivers and underground water supplies that have percolated through the foodchain — from fish swimming in the Subarnarekha River to vegetables washed in its tainted water....

 The Indian commission argues all problems at the nuclear complex have been corrected and that no cases of radiation poisoning have been proven. But the court files include compelling stories of how residents have been stonewalled and criminalized, and their communities strong-armed, to ensure that nothing gets in the way of India’s nuclear dream.

Poor conditions for those who work or live near nuclear facilities have been largely unchanged for decades. When we drove into Jadugoda, we quickly spotted laborers, barefooted, and without protective clothing, riding trucks laden with uranium ore through villages, their tarpaulins gaping and dust spewing. Ore was scattered everywhere: on the roads, over the fields and into the rivers and drains. Uranium tailing ponds that dribbled effluent into neighboring fields were readily accessible, and children played nearby as their parents gathered wood. Washed clothes hung from tailings pipes carrying irradiated slurry. Four months after we left, last March, some of these pipes burst, again sending toxic slurry into Chatikocha village, where residents were supposed to have removed, but remain.

 Alarms about these activities were circulating as long ago as 2005, when India and the United States began work on a pact expanding cooperation on civil nuclear power. A joint statement that year by President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh about the pact included a promise to safeguard the environment, but hailed reactors as a way to meet “global energy demands in a cleaner and more efficient manner...”

https://www.publicintegrity.org/2015/12/14/18844/india-s-nuclear-industry-pours-its-wastes-river-death-and-disease


--------------------------------



Tonnes of fish die in Kelo river, Chattisgarh due to toxic industrial waste - Update from CGNetSwara


  2011-03-29

 Savita Rath from Raigarh says when people went to take bath this morning in Kelo River they found many dead fish.

 After exploration she found that more than 3 ton fish have died in Kelo River in last one week.

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/tonnes-fish-die-kelo-river-chattisgarh-due-toxic-industrial-waste-update-cgnetswara

---------------------------

Canal water for drinking, toxic groundwater for irrigation!


May 2016

 While Punjab is increasingly increasing using canal water for drinking on account of high toxicity in the ground water, it will now pump out this water for irrigation purposes. The new tubewell connections – 1.25 lakh - will not just deplete the state’s already depleted water table, but water pumped up from these tubewells pose a risk of contaminating the food grains and vegetables grown in the fields. Sources in the Water Supply and Sanitation Department said that with high concentration of heavy metals in water pumped from the tubewells - lead, fluorides, nitrates, selenium, arsenic, iron, aluminum and mercury- they are sourcing canal water for drinking purposes in many parts of the state. A sum of Rs 310 crore has been set aside for this purpose for 140 villages in Moga and 36 villages in Barnala. While such projects in these two districts are ready for implementation, four other districts - Sangrur, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur and parts of Amritsar- too have to be shifted to canal based drinking water supply. Sources say that once drinking water supply is drawn from canals the water from tubewells can be used only for washing clothes and for bathing- that too only in cases where the fluoride and mercury content is within permissible limits. According to the latest data available from Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Punjab Biotechnology Incubator, Moga has 111 habitations having uranium, 47 habitations having aluminum and 24 having lead - all beyond the permissible limits. In Barnala, the uranium content in 95 villages, aluminum in 19 villages and lead in two habitations were found to be beyond the permissible limits. In these two districts, even the basic parameters in water, fluoride and iron were higher than the permissible limit forcing the department to switch over to canal water as is prevalent in most parts of Malwa region. In Doaba and Majha regions of the state, the drinking water supply is mainly through 5000 tubewells. Even in these regions, the first aquifer and second aquifer (the water strata underground) have a high concentration of heavy metals...

http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/punjab/community/canal-water-for-drinking-toxic-groundwater-for-irrigation/238301.html

-------------------------


The poisoned waters of Punjab

  
2015-08-29

A study found that drinking water samples in SW Punjab were highly contaminated with uranium, thereby increasing the radiological and chemical risks to human health.

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/poisoned-waters-punjab

-----------------------


Uranium distribution study in the drinking water samples of 
SW Punjab, India


 http://www.imedpub.com/articles/uranium-distribution-study-in-the-drinking-water-samples-of-sw-punjab-india.pdf

----------------------

Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India.

 

 2004

Abstract

India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radioactivity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the decommissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a multi-tier system of AERB permissions is in place to ensure that all aspects of safety have been considered before permission to operate is granted. The stages where permission of AERB is essential are site selection, design data, and several stages during construction and operation. The details required by AERB include provision for treatment and storage of radioactive waste, de-commissioning procedures and provision of costs. In addition to AERB, nuclear power plants have to comply with the requirements of Ministry of Environment and Forests and get their clearance. This is given on the basis of Environmental Impact Assessment Report which should satisfy the authorities that no ecological damage will be caused and the facility will not have adverse effect on the environment. In addition, the State Pollution Control Board where the facility is to be located has to permit the site of the plant for its proposed discharges into the environment. It is largely due to the above comprehensive regulatory controls that none of the plants in India had any accident during the last 34 decades of operation. The type of measurements carried out by the ESL's and results from a few typical ESL's will be presented.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15162860



-----------------------

Impact of particle size, temperature and humic acid on sorption of uranium in agricultural soils of Punjab

 

  2015 Jun


 Batch experiments were conducted to study the sorption of uranium (U) onto soil in deionised water as a function of its dosage, temperature and humic acid (HA). Furthermore, soils were characterized for particle sizes in the form of sand (>63 µm), silt (>2–<63 µm) and clay (<2 µm). The textural analysis revealed that soils were admixture of mainly sand and silt along with a small abundance of clay. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that clay factions ranging from 2.8 to 5% dominated by quartz and montmorillonite. Experimental results indicated that soil with high abundance of clays and low sand content has relatively high U sorption which could be due to availability of high exchange surfaces for metal ions. However, at low concentration of HA, sorption of U was maximum and thereby decreased as the HA concentration increased. The maximum sorption may be due to increase in the negative active surface sites on HA and further decrease could be attributed to saturation of sorption site and surface precipitation. Conversely, the thermodynamic data suggested that the sorption is spontaneous and enhanced at higher temperature.

 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4469604/

---------------------

A study on the impact of phosphate fertilizers on the radioactivity profile of cultivated soils in Srirangam (Tamil Nadu, India)

 

2014

Abstract

Phosphate fertilizers are enriched with 238U during its production from phosphate rocks. Since, application of phosphate fertilizers in modern agriculture is ever on the increase, the present study investigated the impact of phosphate fertilizers on the radioactivity profile of cultivated (fertilized) soils as against virgin soils. Thirty soil samples each from cultivated fields and virgin fields were collected from Srirangam taluk and analyzed for the activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K employing gamma ray spectrometry. Similar analysis was also undertaken in commonly used phosphate fertilizers. Among the phosphate fertilizers analyzed single super phosphate (396.3 Bq/kg) and triple super phosphate (284.2 Bq/kg) registered higher level of 238U. The mean activity level of 238U in cultivated soil (8.4 Bq/kg) was 25% higher than that of virgin soil (6.8 Bq/kg), while the mean 232Th and 40K activities in cultivated soil (98.4 Bq/kg & 436 Bq/kg) were elevated by 12.4% and 4% respectively as compared to virgin soil (87.5 Bq/kg & 419 Bq/kg). The mean radium equivalent (Raeq) value for virgin and cultivated soil samples was found to be 164.5 Bq/kg and 181.7 Bq/kg respectively. It is evident that the application of phosphate fertilizers elevated 238U level of the soil. However, the mean Raeq value for soil samples is well below the permissible limit of 370 Bq/kg and hence cultivated soils do not pose any radiological risk.


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1687850714000879


-------------------------------------------------------


Actinides in the environment

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Actinides in the environment refer to the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in Earth's environment. Environmental radioactivity is not limited solely to actinides; non-actinides such as radon and radium are of note.


Thorium in the environment


In India, a large amount of thorium ore can be found in the form of monazite in placer deposits of the Western and Eastern coastal dune sands, particularly in the Tamil Nadu coastal areas. The residents of this area are exposed to a naturally occurring radiation dose ten times higher than the worldwide average.

Occurrence

Thorium is found at low levels in most rocks and soils, where it is about three times more abundant than uranium, and is about as common as lead. Soil commonly contains an average of around 6 parts per million (ppm) of thorium. Thorium occurs in several minerals, the most common being the rare earth-thorium-phosphate mineral, monazite, which contains up to about 12% thorium oxide. There are substantial deposits in several countries. 232Th decays very slowly (its half-life is about three times the age of the earth). Other isotopes of thorium occur in the thorium and uranium decay chains. Most of these are short-lived and hence much more radioactive than 232Th, though on a mass basis they are negligible.

Effects in humans

Thorium has been linked to liver cancer. In the past thoria (thorium dioxide) was used as a contrast agent for medical X-ray radiography but its use has been discontinued. It was sold under the name Thorotrast.


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinides_in_the_environment

-------------------------------------------------------


Coal Ash Is More Radioactive Than Nuclear Waste

 

 By burning away all the pesky carbon and other impurities, coal power plants produce heaps of radiation

 December 13, 2007

At issue is coal's content of uranium and thorium, both radioactive elements. They occur in such trace amounts in natural, or "whole," coal that they aren't a problem. But when coal is burned into fly ash, uranium and thorium are concentrated at up to 10 times their original levels.
Fly ash uranium sometimes leaches into the soil and water surrounding a coal plant, affecting cropland and, in turn, food. People living within a "stack shadow"—the area within a half- to one-mile (0.8- to 1.6-kilometer) radius of a coal plant's smokestacks—might then ingest small amounts of radiation. Fly ash is also disposed of in landfills and abandoned mines and quarries, posing a potential risk to people living around those areas.
In a 1978 paper for Science, J. P. McBride at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and his colleagues looked at the uranium and thorium content of fly ash from coal-fired power plants in Tennessee and Alabama. To answer the question of just how harmful leaching could be, the scientists estimated radiation exposure around the coal plants and compared it with exposure levels around boiling-water reactor and pressurized-water nuclear power plants.
The result: estimated radiation doses ingested by people living near the coal plants were equal to or higher than doses for people living around the nuclear facilities. At one extreme, the scientists estimated fly ash radiation in individuals' bones at around 18 millirems (thousandths of a rem, a unit for measuring doses of ionizing radiation) a year. Doses for the two nuclear plants, by contrast, ranged from between three and six millirems for the same period. And when all food was grown in the area, radiation doses were 50 to 200 percent higher around the coal plants.
McBride and his co-authors estimated that individuals living near coal-fired installations are exposed to a maximum of 1.9 millirems of fly ash radiation yearly. To put these numbers in perspective, the average person encounters 360 millirems of annual "background radiation" from natural and man-made sources, including substances in Earth's crust, cosmic rays, residue from nuclear tests and smoke detectors.


Dana Christensen, associate lab director for energy and engineering at ORNL, says that health risks from radiation in coal by-products are low. "Other risks like being hit by lightning," he adds, "are three or four times greater than radiation-induced health effects from coal plants." And McBride and his co-authors emphasize that other products of coal power, like emissions of acid rain–producing sulfur dioxide and smog-forming nitrous oxide, pose greater health risks than radiation.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an online database of fly ash–based uranium content for sites across the U.S. In most areas, the ash contains less uranium than some common rocks. In Tennessee's Chattanooga shale, for example, there is more uranium in phosphate rock.
Robert Finkelman, a former USGS coordinator of coal quality who oversaw research on uranium in fly ash in the 1990s, says that for the average person the by-product accounts for a miniscule amount of background radiation, probably less than 0.1 percent of total background radiation exposure. According to USGS calculations, buying a house in a stack shadow—in this case within 0.6 mile [one kilometer] of a coal plant—increases the annual amount of radiation you're exposed to by a maximum of 5 percent. But that's still less than the radiation encountered in normal yearly exposure to X-rays.
So why does coal waste appear so radioactive? It's a matter of comparison: The chances of experiencing adverse health effects from radiation are slim for both nuclear and coal-fired power plants—they're just somewhat higher for the coal ones. "You're talking about one chance in a billion for nuclear power plants," Christensen says. "And it's one in 10 million to one in a hundred million for coal plants."
Radiation from uranium and other elements in coal might only form a genuine health risk to miners, Finkelman explains. "It's more of an occupational hazard than a general environmental hazard," he says. "The miners are surrounded by rocks and sloshing through ground water that is exuding radon."

 Developing countries like India and China continue to unveil new coal-fired plants—at the rate of one every seven to 10 days in the latter nation. And the U.S. still draws around half of its electricity from coal. But coal plants have an additional strike against them: they emit harmful greenhouse gases.

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/coal-ash-is-more-radioactive-than-nuclear-waste/



------------------------------------------------------------


--------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------

 Chapter 2: Pesticides

-----------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------


-----------------------------------------------------------------

Dupont India, Rallis to market each other's pesticides


NEW DELHI (CNI)--E.I. DuPont India and Rallis India have agreed to market each other’s new-generation insecticides against cotton pests.
Rallis, the country’s largest pesticides company, will co-market DuPont’s Indoxacarb which is applied to crops such as cotton, certain vegetables and fruit crops. DuPont originally introduced this insecticide in India under the brand Avaunt in 2000 to control American bollworm in cotton as part of the global launch of the new insecticide in 31 countries.

http://www.icis.com/Articles/2004/04/07/571992/dupont-india-rallis-to-market-each-others-pesticides.html

-----------------------------------------

Syngenta and Bayer sell ‘dangerous’ pesticides in India

 

 Oct 2015

Swiss agrochemicals firm Syngenta and Germany’s Bayer have been accused of distributing dangerous pesticides in India’s Punjab region without sufficient safety information. The Basel-based firm says it is investigating the claims.

https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/pesticides_syngenta-and-bayer-sell--dangerous--indian-pesticides/41717088

------------------------------------------

Pesticides suspected to be carcinogenic escape govt ban list

 Feb 14, 2016

A clutch of pesticides that could be carcinogenic and banned in many countries will continue their run in India, though a government panel has recently decided to ban 18 insect killers hazardous to human health and prohibited abroad.

A clutch of pesticides that could be carcinogenic and banned in many countries will continue their run in India, though a government panel has recently decided to ban 18 insect killers hazardous to human health and prohibited abroad.
This is the first time a decision to ban such a big number of pesticides was taken. There are 261 pesticides registered in India but only 28 had been banned so far.
It followed an agriculture ministry expert committee’s findings that 19 of 66 pesticides, most of which are used in India for the past four decades but banned in foreign nations, are “likely/probable carcinogenic in nature”. The results were based on studies conducted worldwide.
The panel constituted in 2015 said in its report to the government last December that chemicals used in these pesticides are highly toxic.
Environmental activists called the measure too little, late too. “For 40 years we had been eating these chemicals. It’s a failure of the regulatory mechanism. We first allow such chemicals to enter our food chain and then conduct tests on them,” said Sridhar Radhakrishnan, the programme director of Thanal, a non-profit working on pesticide-affected communities in Kerala.
Hazardous pesticides include Butachlor, Mancozeb, Carbaryl, Benomyl, Alachlor, Diuron, and Trichlorfon — popularly used in controlling pests in wheat, paddy, maize, groundnut, grapes, banana, tomato and brinjal and insecticides like DDT and Fenthion, used for household-pest control and public health programmes.
Several other pesticides on the list cause depression, birth defects and damage to kidneys, liver and the nervous system. These are toxic to honey bees, fish and birds too, says the report.
“There are no instances to directly link health hazards to the use of these pesticides in the field but they might be causing long-term health impacts,” said Anupam Verma, adjunct professor at the Indian Agriculture Research Institute, who headed the committee.
“We recommended continuing pesticides which are extremely crucial for good production of crops. Where enough data is not available, we recommended further studies and review.”
The committee recommended immediate ban on production and import of 13 pesticides, prohibit their use by 2018 and phase out additional six pesticides by 2020.
It recommended continuation of the remaining 47 pesticides, asking for a review of 28 in 2018.
Most of the recommendations have been accepted by the registration committee of the agriculture ministry, which decides on the use of the pesticides in the country.
But the suggestion to completely ban DDT was deferred. It asked the health ministry for its comments as DDT’s use is restricted to public health programmes.
A senior agriculture ministry official said a final call on implementing the decision was pending.
The recommendations were not based entirely on health and environment impacts. Consider this. While the committee recommended a ban on eight “likely/probable carcinogenic” pesticides, it has left 11 such chemicals to be continued for now.
These include Chlorothalonil, Iprodione, Propineb, Thiodicarb, Thiophanate Methyle, Oxyfluorfen, Mancozeb, Malathion, Diuron, 2, 4-D and Butachlor, used in various cereal, vegetable and fruit crops.
Agriculture ministry data say the 18 banned pesticides constitute 11% of the total pesticide consumption in the country in the past five years. But the ones allowed to continue make for 34%.
“It is a fact that the turnover volume of a pesticide is one of the criteria in considering the ban. There are also other conditions,” said JS Sandhu, deputy director general, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, who is also the chairman of the registration committee.
The ban would hit the Indian pesticide sector, industry captains felt.
“The expert committee members were stuck with old reports and old information gathered from one or two countries as well as from NGO websites. Most of the data submitted by various companies have not been studied. We have appealed to the agriculture ministry to give us an opportunity to discuss our case product by product,” said Pradip Dave, the president of the Pesticides Manufacturers and Formulators Association of India.


http://www.hindustantimes.com/india/suspected-cancer-causing-pesticides-escape-govt-ban-list/story-zcKpIZeJ5GyI8IMY5U9MsO.html

----------------------------------------

India ignored warnings on lethal pesticides that killed pupils

 

 2013

Nearly a decade ago, the Indian government ruled out a ban on the production and use of monocrotophos, the highly toxic pesticide that killed 23 children this month in a village school providing free lunches under a government-sponsored programme.

MUMBAI // Nearly a decade ago, the Indian government ruled out a ban on the production and use of monocrotophos, the highly toxic pesticide that killed 23 children this month in a village school providing free lunches under a government-sponsored programme.
Despite its being labelled highly hazardous by the World Health Organisation, a panel of government experts was persuaded by manufacturers that monocrotophos was cheaper than alternatives and more effective in controlling pests that decimate crop output.
India, which has more hungry mouths to feed than any other country in the world, continues to use monocrotophos and other highly toxic pesticides that rich and poor nations alike, including China, are banning on health grounds.
Although the government argues the benefits of strong pesticides outweigh the hazards if properly managed, the school food poisoning tragedy underlined criticism that such controls are virtually ignored on the ground.
According to the minutes, the 2004 meeting of the Central Insecticides Board and Registration Committee - the Indian government body that regulates pesticide use - concluded that: "The data submitted by the industry satisfies the concerns raised ... Therefore, there is no need to recommend the ban of this product."
Government scientists continue to defend the pesticide and insist the decision to not ban it remains good.
According to records on the agricultural meteorology division's website, just weeks before the school tragedy in Bihar state, the Indian government advised farmers via text message to use monocrotophos to kill borer pests in mandarin fruits and rice.
"It is cost effective and it is known for its efficacy ... some even call it a benevolent pesticide," said TP Rajendran, the assistant director general for plant protection at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
"I can say that pesticides currently permitted in the country are safe provided they are used as per specifications and guidelines. We have exhaustive and detailed guidelines. They need to be followed."
A senior official directly involved in the decision-making on pesticide use said: "You have got to understand that all pesticides are toxic but they are essential for maintaining or increasing agricultural production.
"Can we afford to lose 15 per cent to 25 per cent of output? One cannot afford to lose such a large percentage of agricultural produce. The answer lies in judicious use."
The official declined to be identified.
The WHO has cited a 2007 study that about 76,000 people die each year in India from pesticide poisoning. Many of the deaths are suicides made easy by the wide availability of toxic pesticides.
In the school tragedy, police suspect the children's lunch was cooked in oil that had been stored in a container originally used for monocrotophos.
The Indian government has issued 15 pages of regulations that need to be followed when handling pesticides, including wearing protective clothing and using a respirator when spraying. Pesticide containers should be broken when empty and not left outside to prevent them being reused.
But in a nation where a quarter of the 1.2 billion population is illiterate and vast numbers live in far-flung rural districts, implementation is almost impossible. For instance, monocrotophos is banned for use on vegetable crops, but there is no way to ensure the rule is followed.
According to the WHO, swallowing 1,200 milligrams - less than a teaspoon - of monocrotophos can be fatal to humans. In 2009, it called for India to ban the product because of its extreme toxicity.
"It is imperative to consider banning the use of monocrotophos," it said in a 60-page report. "The perception that monocrotophos is cheap and necessary, have prevented the product from being taken off the market" in India.
WHO officials say the school tragedy reinforces the dangers of the pesticide.
"We would advocate that countries restrict, ban, or phase out ... those chemicals for which they can't ensure that all aspects of use are safe," said Lesley Onyon, WHO's South-east Asia regional adviser for chemical safety. "If they can't ensure safety, it's our policy to say that these chemical or pesticides shouldn't be used."
Indian government officials refuse to address the WHO's findings directly.

https://www.thenational.ae/world/asia/india-ignored-warnings-on-lethal-pesticides-that-killed-pupils-1.475721

-------------------------------------


Centre to ban use of 18 pesticides harmful to humans and animals

 

 Jan 8, 2017

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/the-good-earth/centre-to-ban-use-of-18-pesticides-harmful-to-humans-and-animals/articleshow/56398650.cms

------------------------------------

Pesticides (India)

 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/pesticides


---------------------------------------

India, Dead Children, and the Lessons of a Dangerous Pesticide

 

 2013

Last week, 23 children - some as young as five, none older than 12 - died after eating the free lunch provided at their school in a village in the state of Bihar in northern India. Another two dozen remain hospitalized. They'd reportedly complained about the oddly blackened look of the meal, the bitter taste. But their principal insisted that they finish their food - a dish of beans, potatoes and vegetables - as good children should.
The principal, who had fled, was arrested yesterday. There's no word yet on her husband who also vanished - a grocer who supplied the school kitchen with what now appears to be cooking oil stored in pesticide containers. The obvious skimming of government money provided for school lunches, the charges of engrained corruption and slippery politics, and the absolutely needless deaths of young (and trusting) children has set off a round of accusations and recriminations in India. And also some more deliberate copy-cat poisonings, such as an incident yesterday near the city of Bhopal in which a man dropped rat poison into food being prepared for 50 students at a hostel (who, thankfully, refused to eat it due to the smell).
Lethal pesticides and other poisons are less tightly regulated in India - and many countries in Southeast Asia - than they are here in the United States. The resulting easy access, the easy familiarity, are among the reasons that mass poisonings remain more common there than in our corner. Let's not forget that also, last week, 22 people died after eating a poisoned dinner in Pakistan. The murders were relatedto a feud between two brothers. Those circumstances also play into small scale poisonings that often receive little attention, such as this barely noticed story from June in which a mother killed herself and her three children with poison, or this April incident, meriting a bare three newspaper paragraphs, in which the owner of a private school in Binkaner, India raped two young girls in his care and poisoned them when they threatened to tell.
It's a pattern that allows people to become far too casual in the way they live with, and think of, very poisonous products. Which brings me back to the heartbreaking story of those 23 dead children in Bihar. At a farmed owned by the headmistress, Meena Kumari, police reported that they found empty pesticide containers.
In fact, the very pesticide that killed the children


https://www.wired.com/2013/07/india-dead-children-and-a-dangerous-pesticide/

------------------------------------

Pesticide Poisoning in South India – Opportunities for Prevention and Improved Medical Management

 

Abstract

 

Objective

Warangal district in Andhra Pradesh, southern India, records over one thousand pesticide poisoning cases each year and hundreds of deaths. We aimed to describe the frequency, distribution, and assess quality of management and subsequent outcomes from pesticide poisoning in one large hospital in the district.

Methods

We reviewed data on all patients admitted with pesticide poisoning to a district government hospital for the years 1997 to 2002. For 2002, details of the particular pesticide ingested and management were abstracted from the medical files.

Findings

During these six years, 8040 patients were admitted to the hospital with pesticide poisoning. The overall case fatality ratio was 22.6%. More detailed data from 2002 reveals two thirds of the patients were less than 30 years old, 57% were male and 96% had intentionally poisoned themselves. Two compounds, monocrotophos and endosulfan, accounted for the majority of deaths with known pesticides in 2002. Low fixed dose regimens were used in the majority of cases for the most commonly used antidotes (atropine and pralidoxime). Inappropriate antidotes were also used in some patients.

Conclusions

It is likely that these findings reflect the situation in many rural hospitals of the Asia Pacific region. Even without an increase in resources, there appear to be significant opportunities for reducing mortality by better medical management and further restrictions on the most toxic pesticides.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1762001/

----------------------------------

Does Indian tea have hazardous pesticides?


July 02, 2015

The industry began to upgrade its practices even before the NGO alleged Indian tea contained harmful pesticides.

http://www.rediff.com/business/report/pix-special-does-indian-tea-have-hazardous-pesticides/20150702.htm

---------------------------------

 Endosulfan

Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is being phased out globally. The two isomers, endo and exo, are known popularly as I and II. Endosulfan sulfate is a product of oxidation containing one extra O atom attached to the S atom. Endosulfan became a highly controversial agrichemical[2] due to its acute toxicity, potential for bioaccumulation, and role as an endocrine disruptor. Because of its threats to human health and the environment, a global ban on the manufacture and use of endosulfan was negotiated under the Stockholm Convention in April 2011. The ban has taken effect in mid-2012, with certain uses exempted for five additional years.[3] More than 80 countries,[4] including the European Union, Australia, New Zealand, several West African nations,[5] the United States,[6][7] Brazil,[8] and Canada[9] had already banned it or announced phase-outs by the time the Stockholm Convention ban was agreed upon. It is still used extensively in India, China, and few other countries. It is produced by Makhteshim Agan and several manufacturers in India and China. Although, the Supreme Court had, by an order dated 13.05.2011, put a ban on the production and sale of endosulfan in India till further orders.

 Status by region

India

Although classified as a yellow label (highly toxic) pesticide by the Central Insecticides Board, India is one of the largest producers[62] and the largest consumer of endosulfan in the world.[11] Of the total volume manufactured in India, three companies — Excel Crop Care, Hindustan Insecticides Ltd, and Coromandal Fertilizers — produce 4,500 tonnes annually for domestic use and another 4,000 tonnes for export. Endosulfan is widely used in most of the plantation crops in India. The toxicity of endosulfan and health issues due to its bioaccumulation came under media attention when health issues precipitated in the Kasargod District (of Kerala) were publicised.[63][64] This inspired protests, and the pesticide was banned in Kerala as early as 2001, following a report by the National Institute of Occupational Health. In the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants of 2011, when an international consensus arose for the global ban of the pesticide, India opposed this move due to pressure from the endosulfan manufacturing companies.[21][65] This flared up the protest,[66][67][68] and while India still maintained its stance, the global conference decided on a global ban, for which India asked a remission for 10 years. Later, on a petition filed in the Supreme Court of India, the production, storage, sale and use of the pesticide was temporarily banned on 13 May 2011, and later permanently by the end of 2011.[69][70]
The Karnataka government also banned the use of endosulfan with immediate effect. Briefing presspersons after the State Cabinet meeting, Minister for Higher Education V.S. Acharya said the Cabinet discussed the harmful effects of endosulfan on the health of farmers and people living in rural areas. The government will now invoke the provisions of the Insecticides Act, 1968 (a Central act) and write a letter to the Union Government about the ban. Minister for Energy, and Food and Civil Supplies Shobha Karandlaje, who has been spearheading a movement seeking a ban on endosulfan, said, "I am grateful to Chief Minister B.S. Yeddyurappa and members of the Cabinet for approving the ban.[71]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endosulfan

--------------------------------


Poison in your food

 

 June 15, 1989

Repeated surveys have shown that Indian food is now laced with one of the highest amount of toxic pesticide residues in the world. This has now become a serious health hazard. Yet pesticide usage continues to grow, there is rampant misuse, and virtually no action is taken to control the menace.


http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/indian-food-laced-with-some-of-the-highest-amounts-of-toxic-pesticide-residues-in-the-world/1/323556.html

----------------------------------


All pesticides harmful; Govt bans only a few


Jan 13,2017

 The decision to ban 18 pesticides in India brings hope, but it should be extended to include all the pesticides which are banned or restricted elsewhere but are still used in India. The Centre has issued an order Banning of Pesticides Order, 2016 to ban manufacture, import, formulate, transport, sell and use of 18 of the 66 pesticides which are still registered for domestic use in India.

http://www.thehansindia.com/posts/index/News-Analysis/2017-01-13/All-pesticides-harmful-Govt-bans-only-a-few-/273471

----------------------------------

Report Finds 34 Pesticides in Tea From India


Aug 2014

The report reveals the systematic presence of mixtures of multiple pesticides, many classified as highly or moderately hazardous by the World Health Organisation (WHO), in tea grown and sold in India as well as exported abroad [1] by leading international and national brands such as Tetley, Lipton and Twinings. These brands belong to companies like Tata Global Beverages, Hindustan Unilever and Twinings, among others.

Practically all the samples taken from packaged tea purchased on the Indian market over the last year contained residues of at least one pesticide, and more than half of them contained "cocktails" of more than 10 different pesticides, including one sample, which contained residues of 20 different pesticides!

https://www.ecowatch.com/report-finds-34-pesticides-in-tea-from-india-1881941206.html



------------------------------



Impact of Pesticides Application in Agricultural Industry: An Indian Scenario

 2013

https://www.ripublication.com/ijafst_spl/ijafstv4n8spl_18.pdf

-------------------------------


Highly toxic pesticides in Indian fruits, vegetable, organic food: Report


 Oct 01, 2015

 Ministry of Agriculture conducted a study to trace pesticides and contaminants in samples collected from various outlets across India. The samples included vegetables, fruits, spices, red chili power, curry leaves, rice, wheat, pulses, tea and milk. Samples were also collected from farms and organic outlets and tested in 25 participant laboratories for pesticides such as organo-chlorine, organo-phosphorous, synthetic pyrethroids, carbamates and herbicides.
Test results revealed that 18.7 percent of total 20,618 samples contained pesticide residues and 2.6 percent were above Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) prescribed by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI). About 12.5 percent of samples had high level of non-approved pesticide, which raises question over awareness among India’s agrarian community.

http://www.planetcustodian.com/2015/10/01/7862/highly-toxic-pesticides-in-indian-fruits-vegetable-organic-food-report.html

----------------------------


18 pesticides banned, 48 pesticides like Monocrotophos, Paraquat Dichloride, Glyphosate yet to be banned



January 13, 2017


http://www.toxicswatch.org/2017/01/18-pesticides-banned-48-pesticides-like.html

-----------------------------



Use Of Pesticides In North Tamil Nadu (Namakkal)
-Impacts On Human Health And Persistence In Environment

Oct 2016

http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jpbs/papers/Vol11-issue5/Version-1/Q110501131137.pdf

------------------------------

Germany: NGOs file complaint against Bayer for mislabeling of hazardous pesticide products sold in India


 Oct 2016

The European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights has lodged a complaint with the regional Chamber of Agriculture in Bonn, Germany, against Bayer CropScience AG and Bayer AG. The reason: labels on pesticides must contain warnings about risks to health and the environment. In Europe Bayer sells the hazardous product Nativo 75 WG with the warning: “suspected of damaging the unborn child”. This warning is not included on the same product after it is exported to and made available in India. In a complaint to the Chamber’s department of plant protection, ECCHR calls on the authorities to determine whether Bayer is breaching rules on the export of pesticides. The department has the power to impose a fine or ban the export of Nativo. The complaint was co-signed by ECCHR partner organizations Kheti Virasat Mission, PAN Germany, and FIAN Deutschland...

https://business-humanrights.org/en/germany-ngos-file-complaint-against-bayer-for-mislabeling-of-hazardous-pesticide-products-sold-in-india

------------------------------


Highly hazardous pesticides from BASF, Bayer, and Syngenta!


http://www.pan-germany.org/download/Big3_EN.pdf

-------------------------------

Conditions of Paraqut use in India

https://www.publiceye.ch/fileadmin/files/documents/Syngenta/Paraquat/2015-04_Paraquat-use-India_EN_DEF.pdf

-------------------------------


Greenpeace calls on the industry to save Indian tea from pesticides

 August 2014

New study reveals the extent of pesticide residues found in tea


http://www.greenpeace.org/india/en/Press/Greenpeace-calls-on-the-industry-to-save-Indian-tea-from-pesticides/

------------------------------


Modern Agricultural Practices: A dilemma of farmer and farm worker's health in cash crop zone in the Maharashtra State.

https://www.slideshare.net/Z3P/m3q87

------------------------------

 Organophosphate pesticides eyed as cause of India poisoning: How toxic?

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/organophosphate-pesticides-eyed-as-cause-of-india-poisonings-how-toxic/


--------------------------------


  Pesticide poisoning in south India: opportunities 
  for prevention and improved medical management

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01412.x/pdf

-------------------------------

The impact of pesticide exposure on child labourers in agriculture


  22 June 2011

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO held a side event during the conference (on 22 June at 13:00) to highlight the impact of pesticide exposure on children, and child labourers in particular. ILO News spoke to Paola Termine, ILO Technical specialist on child labour in agriculture, who is also coordinating the International partnership for cooperation on child labour in agriculture, ahead of the meeting.

http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/features/WCMS_158425/lang--en/index.htm

--------------------------------

Organic Pollution in India


Problems with Pollution

Pollution in India’s waters has long been a great concern and topic of international environmental discussions. On January 15th, three blocks within the populous city Meerut were declared sensitive zones: The water there is highly contaminated. As the Pollution Control Board (PCB) later found out, the reason for this contamination was due to high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS), almost four times the normally permitted levels. Why such large numbers? A PCB member later remarked that it could be due to the “higher content of the organic material or industrial effluents that pass through the area via Kali Nadi, the highly polluted stream that flows around the city”.
These organic pollutants were traced back to many slaughter houses that were stationed near the river. Often these slaughterhouses use water from wells around them for processing the meat, and instead of treating it as wastewater, it gets sent back to the ground. This tainted groundwater is now used as drinking water in neighboring villages. Therefore, cities and villages like Meerut suffer because of the inadequacies of these effluent industries.5
It turns out that this area wasn’t the only one affected by industrial based organic pollutants. In fact, these pollutants have long been intertwined with India’s water history. Most organic pollutants are categorized as POP(s) or Persistent Organic Pollutants. These POPs range from intentionally created chemicals that were used by industries and agriculture, to unintentional toxins that result from industrial combustion. All of these have certain common characteristics: First, organic pollutants have high lipophilicity, or the ability to accumulate in fat. Secondly, they are all persistent, as their name suggests, in the environment. This means that they do not degrade very easily and tend to circulate for a long time. As they circulate, they tend to cover great distances, and can travel from one side of the world to another.
When organic matter increases in a body of water, the number of decomposers will increase. These decomposers grow rapidly and use a great deal of oxygen during their growth. As more and more decomposition occurs, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels decrease. A lack of oxygen can kill aquatic organisms. As the aquatic organisms die, they are broken down by decomposers which further decrease DO levels. Of course, the quality of water is affected largely by the presence of organic matter. Polluted water may have undesirable color, odor, taste, turbidity, pesticides, industrial waste products, high levels of TDS, acids, alkalies, and other domestic sewage content.2
Organic pollutants have an impact on people and aquatic life whose survival is dependent upon water. Because organic pollutants have a high lipophilicity, they bioaccumulate in the food chain. This eventually affects many organisms, including humans, that depends on the fragile balance of the chain. Organic pollutants disrupt the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems. The developing brain and nervous system may be most vulnerable. They play a role in the development of Parkinson’s disease and the destruction of nerve cells in certain regions of the brain. In marine life, they have been seen to bring about metabolic imbalance and long-term toxicity.1

http://savethewater.org/2016/02/01/organic-pollution-in-india/

-------------------------------


      Country Situation on Persistent Organic
                Pollutants (POPs) in India

http://www.ipen.org/sites/default/files/documents/4ind_india_country_situation_report-en.pdf

--------------------------------


Evaluation of the concentration of HCH, DDT, HCB, PCB and PAH in the sediments along the lower stretch of Hugli estuary, West Bengal, northeast India

 2004

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7948021_Evaluation_of_the_concentration_of_HCH_DDT_HCB_PCB_and_PAH_in_the_sediments_along_the_lower_stretch_of_Hugli_estuary_West_Bengal_northeast_India

 --------------------------------

India Environmental Portal (Thesaurus)

http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/category/2521/thesaurus/pcbs/

---------------------------------

 ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS


 Male reproductive and developmental health: the human evidence


2. PCBs and semen quality
The epidemiological evidence on the relationship be-tween PCBs and semen quality support an inverse association of PCBs with reduced semen quality, specifically reduced sperm motility. Such relationships have been consistently reported across studies performed in different countries (India, The Netherlands, Taiwan, Sweden, and the United States). The associations were found
across a range of PCB levels, suggesting that there was not a threshold.

http://apiindia.org/pdf/medicine_update_2012/endocrinology_01.pdf

-------------------------------


PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in phytoplankton and zooplankton in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean


 May 2004

 Samples of phyto- and zooplankton were collected in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (38–67°S, 18–84°E) and analysed for organochlorine residues (PCBs and pesticides). The PCB concentration in particulate matter (mainly phytoplankton) appeared to be high and similar to that of temperate zones: 0.7 μg g−1 dry weight. Contamination levels were more constant expressed per water volume than per dry weight, and seven times lower (1.2 μg m−3) than in northern temperate zones (8.8 μm−3 in the North Sea). The Antarctic ecosystems are thus less contaminated than temperate ones — as expected — but the very low phytoplankton biomass present cause high PCB levels per unit of biomass. These results confirm the necessity of using different systems of units in order to correctly express the contamination levels and to identify the main mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of stable pollutants. PCB levels in netplankton samples (mainly zooplankton) were comparable with phytoplankton on a dry weight basis (0.7 μm−3), lower on a lipid weight basis (5.8 μg g−1 lw for netplankton, 16.3 for particulate matter) and were much higher per seawater volume (27.2 μg m−3 for netplankton, 1.2 for particulate matter). Netplankton contamination is comparable in the Antarctic (0.35 μg g−1 dw) and the North Sea (0.70) since zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton has similar levels of contamination in both ecosystems. Lindane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, DDE and DDT were observed in various samples at trace levels. The high DDE/DDT ratio reflects the more recent origin of Antarctic organochlorines.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/antarctic-science/article/div-classtitlepcbs-and-organochlorine-pesticides-in-phytoplankton-and-zooplankton-in-the-indian-sector-of-the-southern-oceandiv/F554AAD1C6785F9E8A4208B191BC42E9

-----------------------------

 DDTs, PCBs and PBDEs contamination in Africa, Latin America and South-southeast Asia—a review

 December 2014

http://www.aimspress.com/fileOther/PDF/environmental/20150216.pdf


------------------------------


Pollutants buried under glaciers surface to haunt India


 September 22, 2015

Pollutants carried from lands far away and buried for decades under glaciers in the Himalayas are now finding their way into the Ganga and its tributaries, a new study has found. The pollutants are being released as the glaciers are melting faster due to climate change.
Melting glaciers in general are ‘redistributors’ of legacy pollutants stored in them. While they have been shown to release these pollutants in Europe and the US, there had been no study on the Himalayan glaciers.
Now, a study by researchers from India, Norway and the Czech Republic shows that melting Himalayan glaciers can be “major contributors” of two classes of pollutants – polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) – to the Ganga and its tributaries during the dry season. PCBs are man-made chemicals that were widely used in electrical wires and paint, plastics and rubber products. PAHs occur naturally but are also released into the environment due to burning of coal, coal tar, asphalt, hazardous waste and from vehicle exhausts.
During the non-monsoon dry months in South Asia –  eight months of the year – these pollutant loads released by glacier melting can exceed the loads from other sources in the catchment areas of these river basins, says the new study, according to its report in the Environmental Pollution journal.
The scientists, from the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX) at Masaryk University in the Czech Republic and The Energy Resources Institute (TERI), India, analysed air and river water samples, as well as deposits along the Ganga and its major headwaters.
In the central Gangetic plains, compared to pollutants discharged from lower parts of the river basin, the pollutant load from glacial meltwater can be as low as 2% but also as high as 200%, the scientists found. “By remobilising legacy pollutants from melting glaciers, climate change can enhance exposure levels over large and already heavily impacted regions of northern India,” the report says.
“The study provides evidences of high pollution levels of various emerging and legacy hazardous chemicals even in the regions which are far from the dense industrial and agricultural areas,” TERI researcher Girija Bharat explained to thethirdpole.net.
At different sections of the river, the Ganga receives varying amounts of glacial meltwater and industrial effluents, Bharat pointed out. The pollutant load from each source is different. This means that at different sections of the river, the percentage of the pollutant load from each source – glacier or local – is different. The study could not quantify this percentage at various places along the Ganga, as the scientists did not measure the pollutant levels in industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff.


https://www.thethirdpole.net/2015/09/22/pollutants-buried-under-glaciers-surface-to-haunt-india/

------------------------------

Studies of the global baseline pollution XIII


 1989
C6–C14 organohalogens (α- and g-HCH, HCB, PCB, 4,4′-DDT, 4,4′-DDE, cis- and trans-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, anisols) in the lower troposphere of the southern Indian Ocean

Summary

 High-volume air sampling by adsorption on silica gel on the island Réunion (21°S, 56°E) in the southern Indian Ocean was done for analyzing typical southern hemisphere air for semivolatile organohalogens such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (13) and g-hexachlorocyclohexane (406), hexachlorobenzene (7), polychlorobiphenyls [PCB 28 (3.2); PCB 52 (4.9) PCB 101 (6.0); PCB 138 (5.0); PCB 153 (5.0); PCB 180 (1.5)], 4,4′-DDT (8), 4,4′-DDE (19), cis- (4) and trans-chlordane (9), trans-nonachlor (3) and heptachloroepoxide (6) in the lower troposphere. The values in parenthesis are mean concentrations in picogram per m3 air. Local input and long range transport could be distinguished in most cases. The 2,4-, 2,6-, 2,4,5-, 2,4,6-, the tetra- and pentachloro-congeners of the chloroanisoles (phenylmethyl-ethers) were detected. 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloro-1,4-dimethoxy-benzene was found in the 100–280 pg/m3 range, while 2,4,6-tribromoanisol was detected in the 8–30 pg/m3 range together with traces of 2,4- and 2,6-dibromoanisole. The sources and the fate of the latter compounds are not yet understood, since both anthropogenic emissions and biogenic origin are possible.

The ratios of the concentrations in the southern and northern hemisphere (south/north ratio) of the semivolatile organochlorine compounds are discussed. The south/north ratio ranges from 0.05 to 0.09 for HCB and α-HCH, respectively, to 0.74 for the PCBs and 0.9 for g-HCH, to 3 for 4,4′-DDE and up to 8 for 4,4′-DDT. This indicates that there is no significant interhemispheric exchange for compounds such as HCB and α-HCH in the atmosphere, and as a consequence the same must be true for other semivolatile compounds.
Present address: BASF, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany.








Https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00332252?no-access=true

------------------------------

Persistent organochlorine residues in foodstuffs from India and their implications on human dietary exposure


1992

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jf00015a032

------------------------------

Toxic chemicals pollute Pakistan’s rivers


2014

[ISLAMABAD] Scientific studies conducted on the Ravi and Chenab rivers in Pakistan show that the sediment in these tributaries of the Indus is heavily contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) originating with pesticides and industrial effluents.  

http://www.scidev.net/south-asia/environment/news/toxic-chemicals-pollute-pakistan-s-rivers.html


---------------------------------------------------


Pesticide residues in blood of Punjab farmers


Pesticides are commonly used in India but this comes at great cost to human health. The Centre for Science and Environment decided to investigate the matter and looked at the agricultural heartland of Punjab. It found that  15 different pesticides in the 20 blood samples tested from four villages in Punjab. But what is more important to find out is how much of pesticide in blood is ‘safe’. Does a safety threshold level exist? If yes, how do scientists — and the industry — compute it? As we delve into such questions, it becomes clear that science claims more, but understands much less.
All pesticides are tested to establish toxicity — a dose necessary to produce a measurable harmful effect — usually established through tests on mice, rats, rabbits and dogs. Results are then extrapolated on humans, and safe exposure levels predicted. The value commonly used to measure acute toxicity is LD 50 (a lethal dose in the short term; the subscript 50 indicates the dose is toxic enough to kill 50 per cent of lab animals exposed to the chemical). LD 50 values are measured zero onwards; the lower the LD 50 the more acutely toxic the pesticide. To illustrate, we compare DDT — most used in India up to the early 1990s — with monocrotophos, currently most used. DDT’ S LD 50 is 113 mg/kg; monocrotophos, 14 mg/kg. But let us never forget that lower LD 50 means higher acute toxicity.
Pesticides once ingested, accumulate in the body fat or pass through. Organochlorine pesticides, for instance, accumulate in body fat and blood lipids. These fat-soluble chemicals persist in the body for many years. CSE found that pesticide residues of DDE and DDT in the Punjab samples were 35 times and 188 times higher than in samples collected by US based Centre for Disease Control and Prevention which analysed blood and urine levels of 116 environmental chemicals.
CSE calls for urgent action to regulate use of pesticides. It calls for action to monitor human bodies –a biomonitoring programme – to ensure that this chemical invasion is stopped.

http://www.cseindia.org/content/pesticide-residues-blood-punjab-farmers-1

-------------------------------------

Pesticide on your plate

A report, how growers & consumers may not even be aware of the scale of these toxins.


Jan 2015

Vegetables are the noble folk of food world, loved equally by doctors and grandmothers. Vegetarians live off them and meat-eaters are told to live off them. But in Delhi, under every crunchy leaf of radish or the shiny brinjal hide dangerous amounts of pesticides that can slowly kill, shows a new study by JNU.
Pritha Chatterjee and Aniruddha Ghosal report how growers, consumers and the authorities may not even be aware of the scale of these toxins threatening people with coughs to cancer
When you eat your leafy greens and those elegant bhindis, you are doing yourself and the earth a world of good. Universally accepted as repositories of vitamins and minerals crucial to keeping good health, vegetables also help us do our bit for the environment and turn us into animal rights champions by default.
But Delhi could be committing serious offence to its long-term health by biting into that innocent-looking gobhi. A recent study by JNU’s School of Environmental Sciences is the latest among many to establish there is contamination from pesticides in vegetables grown and consumed in Delhi-NCR.

The JNU study tested in particular a category of toxic pesticides known as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) over a year in winter and summer in seven agricultural areas in Delhi-NCR. Most vegetables exceeded limits set by different international regulatory agencies — meaning your vegetables are in fact a daily health hazard.
OCPs are included under a group of toxic compounds called persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which cause cancer and other health risks, including symptoms like vomiting and dizziness, according to many studies. The United Nations Environment Programme, through the Stockholm convention on POPs, listed 12 organochlorine pesticides as POPs. All of these were tested in the latest JNU study and found to exist beyond maximum residual levels in Delhi’s vegetables. The study was published in the international journal Environmental Science Pollution Research late last year.
As the authors point out in the study, since many of these vegetables are consumed raw or without much processing, the health risks can be compounded. “Regular consumption of these vegetables even with modest contamination can cause health problems in the long run,” the report says.
“Though we are continuing to do many projects on different categories of pesticides, this is the first ongoing study on OCPs because they are a particularly toxic category with 12 of 20 named by the UN as POPs,” Dr P S Khillare, professor and corresponding author of the study, said. He added that OCPs are also “very persistent in nature” because they are retained in the atmosphere, soil, water and in the vegetables for very long periods. Studies have also established that dietary consumption accounts for over 90 per cent OCP intake in humans, compared to respiratory or skin-based entry from atmosphere.
The authors conducted gas chromatography tests — a test used to separate and analyse compounds — to measure presence and levels of residues of 20 different banned OCP compounds on vegetable samples taken directly from fields in cultivated areas in Delhi-NCR. Six vegetables — radish, radish leaf, cauliflower, brinjal, okra and smooth gourd, all belonging to different vegetable categories such as root, leafy and fruit type — have been studied by JNU scientists.
Sapna Chourasiya, research scholar from JNU school of environmental sciences who is working on OCPs for her doctoral thesis, says tests found most of the OCPs were found to exceed national and international limits. The levels of pesticides in agricultural produce considered safe for consumption are defined as maximum residue limits (MRLs). In the study, the authors compared the levels of pesticides with MRLs set by the European Commission (EC), WHO and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of India. “Comparison of our results with MRL values established by various agencies clearly indicates that OCP levels were above the established guideline value. It could be done to continued application of OCPs in vegetables to eradicate pest infestation,” the authors have said.

One lab to test over 100 toxins
For years, 42-year-old farmer Lokesh Singh has grown vegetables like gourds, potatoes and cauliflowers in his fields along the Yamuna riverbed in Shahdara. He has heard of the harmful effects of pesticides but says seasonal pest infestations leave him no choice. “I contact my dealers and they recommend a medicine for the crops. Who knows what is in the medicine? Should I worry about the crop or side-effects?” he asked, stocking a pile of cauliflowers, leftovers from his morning sale at the Ghazipur wholesale mandi, to be sold on the ITO bridge.
Delhi has just one government laboratory for testing pesticide residues. With a capacity of 100 samples per month, it is capable of testing for only 28 pesticides. A six-member health ministry committee, constituted on the directions of the Delhi High Court, submitted a report in May 2013 to frame a policy for monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables. The report said the capital’s only pesticide testing lab was “meagre for the state in view of the quantum of fruits and vegetables”. The same report identified 205 selling points for pesticides in Delhi, including 10 under the department of agriculture, eight under cooperatives and 187 private traders.
The committee recommended establishment of three to five government labs near Delhi’s nine wholesale vegetable markets, and testing more samples in private labs. The findings of the committee also recommended random checks, raising frequency of tests, starting smaller labs in the vicinity of mandis so that testing can be immediate, testing of seasonal and non-seasonal fruits and vegetables at least on a quarterly basis, among others.
But nearly two years after the report, little progress has been made. In March 2013, the Delhi High Court directed the Delhi government to institute a committee to monitor pesticides and in April, the Delhi government formed the Pesticide Residue Management Cell (PRMC) under the control of the Food Commissioner, but maintained that only 28 types of pesticides could be tested in government labs. The cell held its first meeting only on May 2 and since then, officials said, little work has been done. “We are framing guidelines for better regulation and including the private sector in the testing process. We will also be preparing a publicity campaign around subzi mandis and retail vegetable markets in the city to educate farmers and vegetable dealers,” a senior official from the department of environment told Newsline.
So how do banned pesticides continue to be available to farmers? The May 2013 health ministry report stated that the “building up of pesticide residues above MRLs (maximum residue limits) should not normally arise. But findings by several research workers/institutions belie this position, indicating there is something wrong somewhere”. Indiscriminate use, non-observance of prescribed waiting periods, use of mis-branded or spurious pesticides, continued use of restricted or banned pesticides and wrong disposal practices were identified as some possible reasons for contamination.
Sapna Chourasiya, research scholar from the JNU School of Environmental Sciences, explained that a survey of pesticides and fertilisers in shops in the areas from which vegetable samples were collected for the recent study showed that none of the specific banned pesticides were being sold. “We, however, found several pesticide mixtures in powder form where the components were not identified in the packets. These are marketed as one-size-fits-all mixtures which will work on different categories of vegetables. When we tested them and identified separate compounds, the banned pesticides were identified,” Chourasia said.
A senior official of the state environment department said the problem that the continued use of banned pesticides represented is only the tip. “Increasingly we find that pesticides that are banned or restricted in most countries in the world end up in India. With increasing competition for larger produce amongst farmers, it’s not surprising that they turn to a readily available alternative, which might be slightly expensive, but is guaranteed to ensure increase produce. The need of the hour is for the government to look for greener alternatives. But the government is stuck in a pro-pesticide bias and is not looking at the long-term health impact of such practices,” the official said.

http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/pesticide-on-your-plate/



------------------------------------------------


Mix of chemicals and sewage in major Indian city creates river of menacing froth


 9/30/2015

 When it rains in the Indian city of Bangalore, it foams. While this phenomenon may lend itself to pretty pictures and entertaining videos, at its core it is an extreme example of pollution gone amuck.







http://projectearth.us/mix-of-chemicals-and-sewage-in-major-indian-city-create-1796423409


-----------------------------------

Flaming river redux: Fire erupts from polluted froth on India lake (Video)

 

 June 19, 2015

Mohamed Attaulla Khan won’t forget the night the lake he used to fish on as a boy caught fire.
The pollution in Bellandur Lake was well-known: Every summer for more than a decade, a white froth as thick as shaving cream had carpeted the water, a chemical reaction caused by untreated waste. But standing on a bridge one evening last month, Khan, a 56-year-old high school principal, saw small orange flames flickering at the lake’s surface amid the toxic suds.

 http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-fire-springs-forth-on-india-lake-20150619-story.html


-----------------------------


Flammable foam hits the streets of Bangalore after river has so much sewage pumped into it that it creates a toxic 'clouds' of bubbles

 

  • The foam comes from the vast and highly polluted Bellandur Lake
  • It is caused by ammonia, phosphate and low dissolved oxygen in the water
  • The white mixture has also been known to catch fire due to the grease in it
  • Bangalore residents have started up a Facebook page to save the lake

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3266564/Flammable-foam-hits-streets-Bangalore-river-sewage-pumped-creates-toxic-clouds-bubbles.html

------------------------


The Silent Fields – Pesticide Poisoning in Punjab


 2013

 A man sprays pesticides on a field in the Punjab region of northwest India. Scientists believe that excessive pesticide use in the region over the past 30-40 years has led to the accumulation of dangerous levels of toxins such as uranium, lead and mercury which are contributing to increased health problems in rural communities.

ollecting 149 hair samples from children at the Baba Farid Centre, they examined toxic metal concentrations, finding that the hair of the children contained dangerously high amounts of Barium, Cadmium, Manganese, Lead and Uranium, signifying long-term exposure.
“They are drinking very polluted water. We can say it is a toxic cocktail in our food chain”, explains Dr. Singh as he cradles yet another child at his centre.
“We have polluted the environment. Since the green revolution we have used lots of fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides and that’s why our soil, water and air has been totally polluted”, he exasperates.
Outside of Faridkot, it does not take long to reach the nearby countryside. Encapsulating all of the small villages in the area are vast expanses of flat, green fields. This area is the heart of the country’s bread basket and the endless expanse of fields is only broken by the odd dirt track, or small road, upon which small tractors chug or bicycles meander.

“Many of the villages have cancer patients but nobody talks about it.”
Jarnil Singh sits in a small courtyard at the centre of his home in the small village of Jajal, a small community of some 3000 people near Faridkot.
It’s a typical village in the region. Single story homes connected by dusty tracks that lead only to other villages. Everywhere you look there are the ubiquitous green fields.
 A retired school teacher, he has watched for decades as illnesses, notably cancer, have increased in his community, taking the lives of local farmers and slowly tearing families apart....

“Punjab is now becoming a hotspot of cancer cases in India”, says Chandra Bhushan, deputy director general of the Center for Science and Environment in Delhi. “There are a lot of studies which now link cancer in Punjab to use of pesticides. Punjab is one of the largest users of pesticides in India. In fact, on a
per acre basis it is the largest user of pesticides.”
“In 2005, we did a study. We checked the blood samples of the people of Punjab and we found multiple pesticides in their blood”, explains Bhushan. “Now, after these tests we couldn’t say that these pesticides were causing cancer [but] what we essentially said was that we are finding large amounts of these chemicals in the bodies of people. It cannot be allowed. We cannot allow chemicals to trespass our body. Therefore India needs a chemical trespass law. A law that says we are not going to allow chemicals into our body and accumulate [where] they might cause numerous diseases in the future.”


http://gallagher-photo.com/environmental-stories/pesticide-poisoning-punjab-india/


-------------------------------------


Technology and business: When a global Swiss agribusiness giant becomes Chinese-owned

 

 April 21, 2016

Syngenta’s global chief executive officer tells The Indian Express why it chose to be acquired by ChemChina and not Monsanto


http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/chemchia-syngenta-swiss-agribusiness-becomes-china-owned-2762969/

-------------------------------------

'Monsanto Activities Are Illegal Under Indian Law': Dr. Krishan Bir Chaudhary


September 02,2016

http://www.thecitizen.in/index.php/NewsDetail/index/2/8614/Monsanto-Activities-Are-Illegal-Under-Indian-Law-Dr-Krishan-Bir-Chaudhary

-------------------------------------


Monsanto’s India Problem (MON, BAYN.DE)


 August 25, 2016

 What’s a seed-maker to do in countries that don’t have America’s take on intellectual property, patents or free market economics ? Negotiate, as in the case of Argentina, or withdraw.

On Thursday it was reported that Monsanto Co (MONMonsanto Co, the St Louis, Missouri-based parent company of Monsanto India, had decided to withdraw an application seeking approval for its next generation of genetically modified cotton seeds also known as Bollgard II Roundup Ready Flex technology. These seeds were to be introduced in India because the previous generation of seeds, Bolgard II, have been growing vulnerable to bollworms. Seeds of this variety, known as Bt cotton, contain toxins released by a bacteria which increase the defense of the crop against insects...


http://www.investopedia.com/news/monsantos-india-problem-mon-baynde/

---------------------------------------

Why India’s Competition Commission Must Stop the Dow and DuPont Merger


 


The Competition Commission of India (CCI) is currently assessing the likely adverse effects on competition of the proposed merger of Dow Chemical Company (Dow) and E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont). If it goes through, the combined entity will likely be the world’s biggest chemical and materials company.
The two companies have submitted the necessary details of their merger plans to CCI in the prescribed Form IV. The CCI has consequently opened up the procedure for investigating the merger, as per the letter and spirit of Section 29 of the Competition Act of India.

https://thewire.in/122855/indias-competition-commission-must-stop-dow-dupoint-merger/

-----------------------------------------

Bayer has bought and acquired Monsanto for 66 billion dollars.

------------------------------------

Bayer makes offer for Monsanto India stake


 Sep 20 2016
In the open offer, Bayer will acquire up to 44,88,315 shares of Monsanto India Ltd from public shareholders at a price of Rs2,481.60 apiece

http://www.livemint.com/Companies/UqyitLerFgxQV5YGNHOlIL/Bayer-launches-open-offer-to-buy-up-to-26-in-Monsanto-India.html

------------------------------------------

Illegal seeds overtake India's cotton fields


 2004

Farmers are too impatient to wait for government approval.
Indian agricultural minister Sharad Pawar admitted in parliament on August 16 that there is a flourishing illegal market in genetically modified (GM) cotton seeds, strengthening allegations by the industry that more than half of all the GM cotton now growing in the country is from unapproved varieties. Pawar, Indian scientists and seed companies want state governments to take action against the seed producers and traders to protect the industry and to prevent an impending 'biodisaster.

http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v22/n11/full/nbt1104-1333.html?foxtrotcallback=true

-------------------------------------------


Monsanto loses millions of dollars after Indian farmers switch to indigenous seeds

  
March 20, 2017 


Monsanto claims that the genetically modified cotton seeds they sell are superior. So why are so many people trying to switch?

Monsanto is losing millions of dollars now that farmers in India are switching to indigenous cotton seeds rather than Bt cotton.

The agrochemical company is known for pushing a form of Bt cotton in India for the last decade. They have been accused of manipulating laws in order to enter the Indian market.

Monsanto’s manipulation and greed in India has caused hundreds of thousands of Indian farmers to commit suicide. Between the years of 1995 and 2013, more than 300,000 farmer suicides occurred, many of which were linked to Monsanto. Farmers are forced to pay for Monsanto’s costly seeds, which then force them to pay for the expensive pesticides to effectively grow them, as Bt cotton’s pest resistant quality fades over time.

These farmers are losing their lands, and their livelihoods, due to the debt they incur trying to afford Monsanto’s products. Many of the farmers drink the chemical insecticides in order to commit suicide.

But recently the Indian government has been promoting the use of indigenous seeds as an alternative. In the past year Monsanto has lost $75 million in royalties from the switch. As Keshav Raj Kranthi of India’s Central Institute for Cotton Research stated, “Just wait for the crucial three to four years to see a complete, natural turnaround. By then most farmers will give up Bt cotton and go for the indigenous variety.”

Monsanto claims that the genetically modified cotton seeds they sell are superior, but places in West Africa, where Monsanto is similarly pushing their Bt seeds, rejected the gm seeds after finding it produced poor quality cotton.

http://www.fooddemocracynow.org/blog/2017/mar/20-2

--------------------------------------------


Monsanto and the Poisonous Cartel of GMOs in India

 


 India is steeped in a synthesized controversy created by Monsanto on the first GMO crop supposedly approved for commercialization. Engaged in litigation on many fronts, Monsanto is trying to subvert India's patent laws: Protection of Plant Variety and Farmers Right Act, Essential Commodities Act and Competition Act. It is behaving as if there is no Parliament, no democracy, no sovereign laws in India to which it is subject. Or it simply doesn't have any regard for them.


In another theatre, Monsanto and Bayer are merging. They were one as MoBay (MonsantoBayer), part of the poison cartel of I.G. Farben. The controlling stakes of both corporations lie with the same private equity firms. The expertise of these firms is in war. I.G. Farben, Adolf Hitler's economic powerhouse and pre-war Germany's highest foreign exchange earner, was also a foreign intelligence operation. Hermann Schmitz was president of I.G. Farben, Schmitz's nephew Max Ilgner was a director of I.G. Farben, while Max's brother Rudolph Ilgner ran the New York arm as vice-president of Chemnyco.
Paul Warburg, brother of Max Warburg (board of directors, Farben Aufsichtsrat), founded the U.S. Federal Reserve System. Max Warburg and Hermann Schmitz played a central role in the Farben empire. Other "guiding hands" of Farben Vorstand included Carl Bosch, Fritz ter Meer, Kurt Oppenheim and George von Schnitzler. Each of them was adjudged a "war criminal" after World War II, except Paul Warburg.
Monsanto and Bayer have a long history. They made explosives and lethally poisonous gases using shared technologies and sold them to both sides in the two world wars. The same war chemicals were bought by the Allied and Axis powers, from the same manufacturers, with money borrowed from the same bank.
MoBay supplied ingredients for Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Around 20 million gallons of MoBay defoliants and herbicides were sprayed over South Vietnam. Children are still being born with birth defects, adults have chronic illnesses and cancers, due to their exposure to MoBay's chemicals. Monsanto and Bayer's cross-licensed Agent Orange resistance has also been cross-developed for decades. Wars were fought, lives lost, nations carved into holy lands — with artificial boundaries that suit colonization and resource grab — while Bayer and Monsanto sold chemicals as bombs and poisons and their brothers provided the loans to buy those bombs.
More recently, Bayer CropScience AG and Monsanto are believed to have entered into a long-term business relationship. This gives Monsanto and Bayer free access to each other's herbicide and paired herbicide resistance technology. Through cross-licensing agreements, mergers and acquisitions, the biotech industry has become the I.G. Farben of today, with Monsanto in the cockpit.
The global chemical and GMO industry—Bayer, Dow Agro, DuPont Pioneer, Mahyco, Monsanto and Syngenta—have come together to form the Federation of Seed Industry of India (FSII) to try and become bigger bullies in this assault on India's farmers, environment and democratically-framed laws that protect the public and the national interest. This is in addition to Association of Biotechnology-Led Enterprises (ABLE), which tried to challenge India's seed price control order issued under the Essential Commodities Act in the Karnataka high court. The case was dismissed.
The new group is not "seed industry;" they produce no seeds. They try to stretch patents on chemicals to claim ownership on seeds, even in countries where patents on seeds and plants are not allowed. This is the case in India, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and many other countries.
All Monsanto cases in India are related to Monsanto un-scientifically, illegally and illegitimately claiming patents on seed, in contempt of India's laws, and trying to collect royalties from the Indian seed industry and farmers. The FSII is an "I.G. Farben 100-Year Family Reunion," a coming together of independent and autonomous entities.
The Farben family chemical cartel was responsible for exterminating people in concentration camps. It embodies a century of ecocide and genocide, carried out in the name of scientific experimentation and innovation. Today, the poison cartel is wearing G-Engineering clothes and citing the mantra of "innovation" ad nauseam. Hitler's concentration camps were an "innovation" in killing; and almost a century later, the Farben family is carrying out the same extermination—silently, globally and efficiently.
Monsanto's "innovation" of collecting illegal royalties and pushing Indian farmers to suicide is also an innovation in killing without liability, indirectly. Just because there is a new way to kill doesn't make killing right. "Innovation," like every human activity, has limits—set by ethics, justice, democracy, the rights of people and of nature.


I.G. Farben was tried in Nuremberg. We have national laws to protect people, their right to life and public health, and the environment. India's biosafety and patent laws and the Plant Variety Act are designed to regulate greedy owners of corporations with a history of crimes against nature and humanity.
Industry is getting ready to push its next "gene," the GMO mustard (DMH-11). The GMO mustard, being promoted as a public sector "innovation," is based on barnase/barstar/gene system to create male-sterile plants and a bar gene for glufosinate resistance. In 2002, Pro-Agro's (Bayer) application for approval of commercial planting of GM mustard based on the same system was turned down.
Although banned in India, Bayer finds ways to sell glufosinate illegally to Assam's tea gardens and the apple orchards of Himachal Pradesh. Sales agents show the sale of glufosinate under the "others" category to avoid regulation. These chemicals are finding their way into the bodies of our children without government approval. Essentially, all key patents related to the bar gene are held by Bayer Crop Science, which acquired Aventis Cropscience, which itself was created out of the genetic engineering divisions of Schering, Rhone Poulenc and Hoechst. Then Bayer acquired Plant Genetic Systems and entered into cooperation agreement with Evogene, which has patents on genome mapping.
Before any approval is granted to genetically-engineered mustard, the issue of limits to patentability needs to be resolved on the basis of Indian laws and patents on plants and seeds and methods of agriculture must not be allowed. Deepak Pental, a retired professor and GMO-Operative, will not commercialize GMO mustard seed. His officers at Bayer/Monsanto/MoBay will.
Given our experience with GMO cotton, The Ministry of Environment & Forests is considering the option of putting in place guidelines for socio-economic assessment to judge proposed GMO varieties on the basis of factors such as the economy, health, environment, society and culture.
At the core of socio-economic assessment is the issue of monopolies and cartels, and their impact on small farmers. Even though patents on seeds are not allowed, for more than a decade and a half, Monsanto has extracted illegal royalties from Indian farmers, trapping them in debt and triggering an epidemic of farmers' suicides. Monsanto's war on India's foot soldiers—farmers—is a war being waged by the Farben family, on our Earth family.

https://www.ecowatch.com/monsanto-gmo-india-2001038793.html

---------------------------------------------

Foreign seed firms rally behind Monsanto in Indian alliance


August 26, 2016


NEW DELHI (Reuters) - Major international seed companies in India formed an alliance on Friday, seeking the support of their peers after a flurry of regulatory steps in recent months by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government.
Executives from companies including the local businesses of Monsanto, Bayer, Dow, Dupont Pioneer and Syngenta announced the alliance in a crowded Press Club of India conference room.
The newly-formed Federation of Seed Industry of India (FSII) says its goal is to address difficulties in the industry.
Reuters reported earlier this week that Monsanto had withdrawn an application to sell its next-generation genetically modified (GM) cotton seeds in India on concerns over the security of its intellectual property.
India is Monsanto’s biggest market outside the Americas. Monsanto objected to a government proposal that would force it to share its technology with local seed companies. It has also taken the government to court over a cut in the royalty it gets from seed companies for licensing use of its patented technology.
The New Delhi press conference was a show of solidarity with Monsanto, which has operated in India for decades but is now being investigated by the anti-trust regulator on whether it misused its near-monopoly on GM cotton seeds to jack up prices. 

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-gmo-regulation/foreign-seed-firms-rally-behind-monsanto-in-indian-alliance-idUSKCN11111R


-----------------------------------------------


‘Not scared of Monsanto threat’


 March 17, 2016

The >U.S.-based seed company Monsanto is welcome to leave India if it does not want to lower prices of >genetically modified cotton seeds as directed by the government, a minister said on Wednesday, in a sign the rift between New Delhi and the firm is widening.
The comments come as Prime Minister Narendra Modi's nationalist government expects to develop its own genetically modified (GM) cotton varieties early next year to end Monsanto's dominance; it controls over 90 per cent of cotton seed supply.


http://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/not-scared-of-monsanto-threat/article8366329.ece

----------------------------------------------


Monsanto, Bayer, Syngenta exploiting child labour in India, says report/Poor, but pedicured


May 2003


Monsanto, Bayer, Syngenta exploiting child labour in India, says report/Poor, but pedicured
The very companies which claim to be intent on transforming the lives of the world's poor are, according to a new report, perpetuating child labour in India "in a big way".
http://gmwatch.org/en/news/archive/2003/2172-monsanto-bayer-syngenta-exploiting-child-labour-in-india-says-reportpoor-but-pedicured

---------------------------------------------


How an Indian cotton seed producer took on US giant Monsanto


March 28, 2017


http://www.businesstoday.in/current/economy-politics/how-an-indian-cotton-producer-took-on-seed-giant-monsanto/story/248852.html


-------------------------------------------------


Toxic Valley: A documentary that brings the stories of victims of pesticide poisoning and farming communities.


http://www.indiawaterportal.org/news/toxic-valley-documentary-brings-stories-victims-pesticide-poisoning-and-farming-communities

-----------------------


Government bans project clearance in eight critically polluted industrial areas


 Policy matters this week - No more project clearance in critically polluted areas, Tamil Nadu government launches 'Amma' mineral water and Guwahati to get 24*7 water supply.


No environment clearance in eight critically polluted areas
The Environment Ministry will not grant clearance to any more projects in eight critically polluted industrial areas of the country. In january 2010, the Ministry had imposed a ban on project clearance in 43 industrial clusters, which was later lifted in 26 locations. However, eight of these have registered an alarming rise in pollution as per a Central Pollution Control Board study. Industry lobbyists claim that the move will hurt industrial growth
Amma bottled water hits the market
The Tamil Nadu state government-owned bottled water, Amma mineral water, was launched this week. Priced at Rs 10 for a litre, 'Amma' drinking water is said to be the cheapest available bottled water in the country, next only to the 'Rail Neer' brand of the Railways that sells at Rs 15 per litre. Carrying a picture of state Chief Minister Jayalalitha, the mineral water will be marketed by the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation and sold in long route buses and at bus stations.
24*7 water supply for Guwahati
A new project by the Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority aims to provide round-the-clock treated water supply with adequate pressure in the capital town of Assam. A new grievance redressal cell and a customer care centre have been set up to address the residents' complaints and queries regarding the scheme.
Survey to catch Periyar polluters
The Kerala state Pollution Control Board will carry out a survey of residential buildings and canals around the Periyar river to identify the agents that are polluting the river, which is one of Kochi district's main source of drinking water. The river is plagued by organic waste that has reduced its dissolved oxygen and thus affected its aquatic life. Environmentalists however feel that industrial effluents are the cause of the pollution and not household waste.
Tamil Nadu government orders probe into beach mineral mining
The state government has suspended mining operations in 71 quarries where mining of beach minerals like Garnet, Illmenite and Rutile takes place. The government has also ordered an investigation into allegations of illegal mining in Kanyakumari, Tiruchi, Madurai and Tirunelveli districts. A committee set up to investigate the complaints of illegal mining in Tuticorin district earlier will conduct the probe in these districts.
This is a weekly roundup of policy matters from September 16-22.
http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/government-bans-project-clearance-eight-critically-polluted-industrial-areas


--------------------

Cochin estuary has high level of insecticides


Cochin estuary high on insecticides: Study
Cochin estuary has one of the highest concentration of organochlorine insecticides in the world, revealed a study by the Cochin University of Science and Technology.
Poo to power Bangalore 
Around 100 megawatt will be produced from methane emitted by 1000 MLD sewage. This can meet 75% of the city's power demand.
Air force seizes trucks carried illegally mined in Noida 

Hyderabad's IT hubs may face dry days
Residents of Cyberabad, Hiltech city and Gachibowli are a worried lot as groundwater goes down and areas are not served by distribution network of the Water Boardr.
Plugged leaks get good results for Bangalore




Pipelines have been re-laid on flood-ravaged coastal area of Thiruvananthapuram, but state and private agencies shift responsibility of providing taps.
Census to woo migratory birds at Ropar Wetland
May help devise conservation plans to revive the habitat affected by heavy siltation, pollution and hectic human activity.
Norway eager to invest in Himachal's hydropower 




http://www.indiawaterportal.org/news/cochin-estuary-has-high-level-insecticides

--------------------------


Chemical fertilizers spelling death for infants


Chemical fertilizers spelling death for infants: Study
Death of babies less than one month old in rural areas may be due to exposure to chemical fertilizers that percolate into water, says a study published in the Journal of Development Economics.
No toilets in 25% of Odisha's government schools
50% schools have no seperate toilets for girls and boys while 25% schools have no toilets at all, says a report by the Odisha Primary Education Programme Authority.
392 anganwadis run without drinking water in Hubli
Teachers in the anganwadi centres fetch water from public taps or ponds before children come in.
World Bank money to fortify dams in Tamil Nadu
The Bank has allocated Rs 63 crores to strengthen and increase the capacity of 11 dams in Tamil Nadu that will support more power generation, irrigation and drinking water needs.
Manual scavengers to get Rs 40,000 each for rehabilitation
The National Safai Karamchari Commission will launch a scheme that involves cash incentive to be deposited directly in their bank accounts.
Domestic water tariff may rise by 8% in Maharashtra
Maharashtra Water Resources Regulatory Authority proposes hike in tariff for domestic water use while that for industrial use will be cut drastically.
Manchester University researcher working on fluoride in Bihar
Sandra Downes is developing a water purification technology to treat fluoride contamination in collaboration with AN College of Patna.
Politics decides the flow in Maharashtra 
Those with political connections benefit from state government's move to allocate water from 23 dam projects in the state for industrial purposes.
Delhi survives ammonia scare 
Water treatment plants return to normal operations as level of ammonia in Yamuna water reduces to permissible limits. The amount had increased due to discharge of untreated sewage in Haryana cities.
Andhra lecturer develops low-cost defluoridation method
Using bio-waste like grass and prosopis juliflora, a lecturer in Vijayawada has developed a low cost powder that can be used to make fluoride-contaminated water potable.
Drip irrigation compulsory for cash crops
Maharashtra farmers growing cash crops have to shift to drip irrigation to avoid high tarrif while Vidarbha farmers will get incentives.
Violations during public hearing for Arunachal dam 
People were not allowed to speak and many were beaten up during public hearing for the 1200 MW Kalai II project on the Lohit river.
Flash floods, water logging on rise in Guwahati: Study
During the next 10 years, many areas in the city will have eight-feet deep water every monsoon, says a study conducted by ENVIRON, an environmental group.
Bangalore to recycle construction debris 
The unit will process construction debris for use in place of sand, reducing the dependence of the construction industry on sand mining from rivers.
 This is the news roundup of January 18 and 19, 2014.


http://www.indiawaterportal.org/news/chemical-fertilizers-water-causing-neo-natal-deaths


---------------------------------------------------------------------------


Poisoned by water


  2015-06-18

Endosulfan, a harmful pesticide, is banned in Kerala but other such chemicals continue to be used. Groundwater contamination leading to unsafe water supply is but one of its consequences.


Endosulfan, a pesticide, has been banned in Kerala after its adverse effects were first realised in 1981. Shree Padre, a freelance environmental journalist, first brought out the consequences of using the pesticide by reporting on the various disabilities it caused among domestic animals and on the people of his village in Enmakaje panchayat of Kasaragod District. A study done by CSE on poisoning due to endosulfan confirmed the same [1]. Later studies also found that groundwater contamination with endosulfan continued to be high over the years and that the villages affected continued to lack safe water supply [2].
The article titled 'An Invisible Disaster - Endosulfan Tragedy of Kerala' published in the Economic and Political Weekly, describes the processes and the struggles that followed the controversy in Kasargod, and the economic and political forces that came together to push aside the struggles of affected individuals and communities, whose experiences contradicted the science-dominant public discourse in the state.
The anti endosulfan movement and the scientific debates used to challenge it
Public resistance to endosulfan started in 1985 following the report from Kasargod district. The main demands of the anti endosulfan movement were that it be banned, and that affected people be provided with proper compensation. Although the Government of Kerala temporarily put aerial spraying on hold in 1998, and a permanent ban on it came following a lower court verdict in 2001, there is still no agreement on the after-effects of the spraying in Kasaragod District for more than 20 years now.

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/poisoned-water


---------------------------------------------


Slow poisoning of the Harike wetland

 2015-03-09

Considered a Ramsar site since 1990, the Harike wetland in Punjab is on the verge of a serious crisis, as contamination of its waters from effluents has reached critical levels.

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/slow-poisoning-harike-wetland-0

--------------------------------------------

Environment Ministry lied to Supreme Court about the Uttarakhand dam report


2015-02-24

Centre presents an opposite picture in the Uttarakhand dam case
With respect to the six specific hydroelectric projects on the upper Ganga basin in Uttarakhand, the Environment Ministry had informed the Supreme Court that experts have given a clean chit to the six dams and that the latter can also approve these projects. However, in reality, the Expert Committee Report has warned that these dams will have a huge impact on the people and ecology of the region and hence should not be permitted at all on the basis of the clearances that were given prior to the Uttarakhand tragedy of 2013.


http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/environment-ministry-lied-supreme-court-about-uttarakhand-dam-report

--------------------------------------------


Groundwater resources race against time


2015-02-21

 Development and urbanisation have already put pressure on groundwater resources in the fragile Himalayan region. So, what is the current status of groundwater resources of this unique region?


The Himalayas, an important part of the geography of India, extend along the entire Northern and North-Eastern boundary of the country. It spans six Indian States namely, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal, Sikkim and a major part of Arunachal Pradesh from west to east.
The Himalayan mountain system has a profound effect on the climate of the Indian subcontinent. It shields South Asia from the dry Arctic winds and keeps the region warm. More importantly, the Himalayas play a very vital role in bringing precipitation to the subcontinent by acting as a barrier to the monsoon winds and preventing their northward escape...

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/groundwater-resources-race-against-time

--------------------------------------

Poisonous encounters in Maharashtra


 2014-11-23

The water in Jamwadi village, Yavatmal has been severely contaminated by the Raymond Company but quality tests only confirm this when the villagers changed the name of the village on the test sample...

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/poisonous-encounters-maharashtra

-------------------------------------

Poisonous cocktail in the Cauvery

  
 2014-10-20

Leachate from thermal plants in Mettur flows straight into the Cauvery river polluting cotton fields along the way. What else is this affecting?

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/poisonous-cocktail-cauvery

------------------------------------


The slow death of a river


2014-10-15

 See the impact of pollution on the Kshipra in Madhya Pradesh through the eyes of the residents, many of whom depend on the river for their livelihoods.

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/slow-death-river



----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Toxic water increases cancer victims in Punjab: A documentary


http://www.indiawaterportal.org/news/toxic-water-increases-cancer-victims-punjab-documentary


 ----------------------------------------------------------------

Dumpsite pollutes groundwater


 http://www.indiawaterportal.org/news/dumpsite-pollutes-groundwater

----------------------

No nitrogen and phosphorus in soil due to excessive use of fertilisers


 http://www.indiawaterportal.org/news/no-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-soil-due-excessive-use-fertilisers

--------------------

The curse of copper


 Chemicals contaminate water bodies, causes environmental pollution and acute health problems in a village close to Hindustan Copper Limited project

 http://www.indiawaterportal.org/news/curse-copper

----------------------


20 villages in Bastar suffer from fluoride contamination

 Ground water non-potable in 15 of 27 Chattisgarh districts; administration supplies tankers to affected areas

 http://www.indiawaterportal.org/news/20-villages-bastar-suffer-fluoride-contamination

----------------------


60% tap water in Bangalore not potable


 http://www.indiawaterportal.org/news/60-tap-water-bangalore-not-potable

-------------------


Living rivers, dying rivers: Rivers in the Western Ghats

  2012-02-10

The sixth lecture in the series titled "Living Rivers, Dying Rivers" was delivered by Parineeta Dandekar and Pandurang Hegde.

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/living-rivers-dying-rivers-rivers-western-ghats

-----------------------

India's Toxic Landfills: A Dumping Ground for the World's Electronic Waste

 2006

http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1351&context=sdlp


----------------------

Water quality monitoring of lakes in and around Bangalore city


  2012-02-07

This report by the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) both in Kannada and English highlights the deteriorating condition of the lakes in and around Bangalore city.

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/water-quality-monitoring-lakes-and-around-bangalore-city

------------------------

Mining poisons South Goa waters: The case of the Salaulim reservoir shown in a film


 2012-02-04

 It raises questions about the negative impact that excessive mining can have on the health of population in the area through contamination of water resources. The film presents the case of the Salaulim reservoir, situated in the Sanguem taluka, which is the largest dam in Goa. It supplies water to almost entire South Goa, comprising 55% of the state's population.


http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/mining-poisons-south-goa-waters-case-salaulim-reservoir-shown-film

------------------------


Investigation and assessment report: Arsenic in drinking water sources and related problems of Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh


 2011-12-28

Following media reports about arsenic contamination in Ballia, and a complaint addressed by the people of Ballia to the Ministry of Rural Development, a National Level Monitor was requested to enquire into the issue of water quality.

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/investigation-and-assessment-report-arsenic-drinking-water-sources-and-related-problems

--------------------------



Chemical fertilizers in our water - An analysis of nitrates in the groundwater in Punjab by Greenpeace


 2011-10-31

 This study by Greenpeace India Society is an initial investigation into the effects of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer on groundwater pollution in intensive agriculture areas in Punjab.

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/chemical-fertilizers-our-water-analysis-nitrates-groundwater-punjab-greenpeace

----------------------------


Feared groundwater contamination due to bauxite mining in Vizianagaram, AP - What are the health risks?


 2011-06-02

I am from a voluntary organization - SAMPARKA- at Vizianagaram,Andhra Pradesh. There is some apprehension in the area that as a consequence of the proposed bauxite mining and refining operations would pollute the groundwater.
Concerns are mostly about the dissolved alumina and runoff from mine tailings and refinery waste that would result in the ground water carrying dissolve alumina. Is that correct ? Are the concerns valid? How can the local community address these issues.
Some of the Homeopathic literature refer to the deleterious effects of alumina.

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/questions/feared-groundwater-contamination-due-bauxite-mining-vizianagaram-ap-what-are-health-risks

----------------------------

Transportation behavior of lindane in different types of soil – A research report by National Institute of Hydrology

  
2010-07-17

The report deals with the transportation behaviour of lindane, a pesticide used commonly in the agricultural and public health sectors in India, through sandy and loamy soils. 

http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/transportation-behavior-lindane-different-types-soil-research-report-national-institute

--------------------------

Metal pollution assessment through aquatic sediments - A research report by National Institute of Hydrology

  
2010-06-29

 The study attempts to compile and evaluate the status of metal pollution assessment through aquatic sediments in rivers and lakes, which could be natural or artificial.

The study attempts to compile and evaluate the status of metal pollution assessment through aquatic sediments in rivers and lakes. The introduction of metallic pollutants into a river, whether it is natural (erosion from its drainage basin) or artificial (anthropogenic), can occur in dissolved or particulate form.
Depending on physico-chemical conditions, the pollutants in dissolved form can later precipitate as hydroxides, carbonates or other minerals. They can also be adsorbed by the iron or manganese oxides and hydroxides or co-precipitate with these, or form dissolved organic or organic complexes. In particulate form, associated with suspended matter, the pollutant can, under favorable hydraulic conditions, be deposited on the bottom sediments.
Therefore, the study of the metallic pollutant concentrations in sediments can be conveniently used to investigate possible pollution. The contents are generally well above detection limits, which is not always the case in water. Furthermore, the analyses of sediments eliminate the problem of erratic fluctuations which is often observed in water.

The sediment existing at the bottom of the water body reflects the current quality of the water system and can be used to detect the presence of contamination. Moreover, sediments act as carriers and possible sources of pollution because heavy metals are not permanently fixed by them and can be released back to the water column by changes in environmental conditions.
Therefore, the analysis of heavy metals in sediments enables detection of pollution that could escape water analysis, and also provides information about the critical sites of the water system under consideration.


http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/metal-pollution-assessment-through-aquatic-sediments-research-report-national-institute

------------------------


Organophosphates: A Common But Deadly Pesticide

 

 July 18, 2013

 

Organophosphates attack the nervous system in the same way as nerve agents like sarin.


The pesticides blamed for killing at least 25 children in India are widely used around the world, including in the United States, and health experts have raised safety concerns about this class of chemicals in the past.
Known as organophosphates, the pesticides were developed in Germany in the 1940s and soon became an important defense against agricultural pests. "They are very effective and pose minimal environmental problems," said Lucio Costa, a toxicologist at the University of Washington in Seattle.

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/07/130718-organophosphates-pesticides-indian-food-poisoning/

---------------------------------------


5 eco issues that could cripple India


 
Dr. Seema Javed at Greenpeace identifies India's five most pressing environmental challenges

1. Emissions, rain and climate refugees


2. Land degradation

3. Pollution of fresh water resources

4. Deforestation

5. Unbridled urbanization


http://travel.cnn.com/mumbai/life/cnngo-asks-greenpeace-what-ails-india-656173/

---------------------------------------

Bayer (India)

 Bayer CropScience ES Division has been involved in the manufacture of Public Health pesticides since decades in India. It has been our constant endeavor to develop and launch innovative products that will suite the needs of vector control programs.

https://www.environmentalscience.bayer.in/

--------------------------------------

Comprehensive New Review of Monsanto’s Glyphosate Underscores Urgent Need for Global Action



 Every month we get a new story of how glyphosate is harming people in the farms and off farms in rural India. It is clearly damaging people and planet.” Sarojeni V. Rengam, PAN Asia and the Pacific “Glyphosate is a highly hazardous pesticide. There are other ecosystem based non-chemical alternatives that do not require the use of such hazardous herbicides.  We therefore urge Monsanto and other agrochemical corporations to stop the production and marketing of glyphosate in order to ensure the health of people and the environment.” Dr Angeliki Lyssimachou, PAN Europe “This remarkable compilation of scientific studies reveals that glyphosate-based pesticides -despite what their manufactures’ claim- are far from ‘safe’. Hundreds of non-industry funded studies show that these products are gradually poisoning our people, our environment and its ecosystems. Regulators must stop playing blind and take action to ban all uses of glyphosate.”

http://www.pan-india.org/tag/roundup/


---------------------------------------------------


Harmful Effects of the Green Revolution


Updated April 25, 2017 

The Green Revolution program, which began decades ago, had a noble goal -- increase the global food supply and reduce world hunger. To accomplish this, farmers started to cultivate land using new farming techniques. These methods worked, crop yields climbed and fewer people experienced hunger. However, Green Revolution farming methods also created a few unwanted side effects -- some of which are serious.

Inside the Green Revolution

One primary mission of the Green Revolution was to improve the production of wheat and rice -- two high-yield plants. The program required farmers to use pesticides to kill pests and fertilizers to give extra nutrients to the plants, to take advantage of efficient irrigation techniques, and to learn new management techniques. Not only did food production increase, but statistics show that the production of maize, wheat and rice almost doubled between the 60s and 90s.

Pesticides: Handle with Care

Many of the pesticides used during the heady days of the green revolution (60s to 90s) are very toxic to humans and other non-target organisms. Even pesticides advertised as "green," are not necessarily 100% safe. While many pesticides used in organic farming are safer than common chemicals we come into contact with every day, it is important to be careful. The Environmental Protection Agency does not allow companies to use terms such as "green" or "non-toxic" on pesticide labels.

Toxicity of the Green Revolution

Four decades after Indian farmers began increasing production using pesticides and fertilizers, they are starting to have second thoughts about the change. In 2008, Researchers at Punjabi University discovered DNA damage in 30 percent of Indian farmers who treated plants with herbicides and pesticides. An additional study found heavy metals and pesticide chemicals in drinking water. These substances are harmful and can cause serious health problems. Some of these problems may occur because some farmers may not know how to handle and dispose of toxic chemicals. They may also harm the environment by using too many of those products.

Loss of Genetic Diversity

In traditional farming, farmers plant a variety of crops that typically have a large supply of unique genotypes. People using Green Revolution farming methods plant fewer crop varieties in favor of those that produce high yields. This type of cultivation causes an undesirable loss in crop genetic diversity. You can witness this problem in India, where about 75 percent of their rice fields contain only 10 varieties of plants. This is a significant drop compared to the 30,000 rice varieties that were planted 50 years ago. Traditional crops have the highest gene diversity and as they dwindle, those genes vanish. These genetic diversity losses can be seen all over the world in locations that implemented Green Revolution farming methods.

Impacts on Rice Production

Rice fields are a vital source of food for individuals around the world. Because these fields often have mineral-rich soil, they are resilient and people have farmed them successfully for centuries. However, after the Green Revolution changed the way people farm, rice field sustainability declined, even though rice yields increased. Causes for the decline include loss of biodiversity and fish deaths due to toxicity from pesticide use.

Other Side Effects

Because the Green Revolution required learning new water management skills, some farmers that didn't have these skills could not take full advantage of the new irrigation techniques. The Green Revolution's original mission was to focus on areas with significant rainfall or irrigation. This meant that in drier locations, wheat yield gains often fell below 10 percent, while yields in irrigated areas reached 40 percent. By the mid 80s, locations with high irrigation fully adopted high-yield crop production methods, while areas with little rainfall and a limited water supply experienced low adoption rates.
 

http://sciencing.com/harmful-effects-green-revolution-8587115.html


-----------------------------------------------------


 India environment - current issues

    ShareThis
Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Definition: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:


Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain).


Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England.


Aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke, or fog.


Afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire.


Asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form.


Biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption.


Bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat.


Biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area or volume.


Carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits.


Catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar.


DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972.


Defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health.


Deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g., unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing, and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without planting new growth.


Desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, or climate change.


Dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g., shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems.


Drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-commercial marine species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean."


Ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of organisms and their specific environments.


Effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial waste which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it.


Endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or habitat destruction.


Freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.


Greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.


Groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells and natural springs.


Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders economic resources.


Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the 145,000 Inuits of Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental issues; a General Assembly convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change.


Metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science, technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and air when not properly disposed.


Noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings.


Overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land.


Ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living organisms.


Poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with respect to endangered or threatened species.


Pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made waste.


Potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed.


Salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops.


Siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion.


Slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the environment .


Soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides or fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce agricultural products.


Soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and desertification.


Ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans.


Water-born diseases - those in which bacteria survive in, and are transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an untreated water supply.



-------------------------------------------------------


2,4-D: The Most Dangerous Pesticide You've Never Heard Of


This toxic herbicide comes with known health risks, but it's still being used on crops, in parks, and maybe even in your own backyard.
One of the cheapest and most common weed killers in the country has a name you've probably never heard: 2,4-D. Developed by Dow Chemical in the 1940s, this herbicide helped usher in the clean, green, pristine lawns of postwar America, ridding backyards everywhere of aesthetic undesirables like dandelion and white clover. But 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, as it's known to chemists, has a less wholesome side. There's a growing body of scientific evidence that the chemical poses a danger to both human health and the environment.

Also problematic: 2,4-D sticks around in the environment. Depending on the formulation, it can drift through the air from the fields where it is sprayed or be tracked inside homes by pets or children. By the EPA's own measure, 2,4-D has already been detected in groundwater and surface water, as well as in drinking water. Australian scientists reported in 2012 that it was found in more than 90 percent of samples taken from agricultural catchments bordering the Great Barrier Reef—bad news for many fish, for whom the herbicide can be toxic. It can also poison small mammals, including dogs who can ingest it after eating grass treated with 2,4-D.


The pesticide, which allows not just grasses but also fruits and vegetables to flourish, can attack both the roots and leaves of weeds by making the unwanted plant's cells grow out of control—sort of like inducing cancer in the plant to kill it or drastically slow its spread. It's used widely in agriculture in soybean, corn, sugarcane, and wheat fields, and it turns up in most "weed and feed" products as well as in many lawn treatments. The problem is, the herbicide that was once considered clean and green may no longer be safe by today's standards.
The evidence is slowly mounting—but not yet conclusive. It's not always easy to determine whether a particular substance is causing harm or just happens to be present when some other agent is to blame. Public health experts can't always draw a firm conclusion from studies whose methodologies are lacking in scientific rigor. Take the link between chronic exposure to 2,4-D and cancer: "The evidence isn't clear enough to draw conclusions with confidence, but it is better to take precautions to prevent possible cancers than to wait for more evidence," says Jennifer Sass, an NRDC senior scientist.
Researchers have observed apparent links between exposure to 2,4-D and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (a blood cancer) and sarcoma (a soft-tissue cancer). But both of these can be caused by a number of chemicals, including dioxin, which was frequently mixed into formulations of 2,4-D until the mid-1990s. Nevertheless, in 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared 2,4-D a possible human carcinogen, based on evidence that it damages human cells and, in a number of studies, caused cancer in laboratory animals.
More conclusive is the proof that 2,4-D falls into a class of compounds called endocrine-disrupting chemicals, compounds that mimic or inhibit the body's hormones. Laboratory studies suggest that 2,4-D can impede the normal action of estrogen, androgen, and most conclusively, thyroid hormones. Dozens of epidemiological, animal, and laboratory studies have shown a link between 2,4-D and thyroid disorders. "That's really important when we're thinking about development," says Kristi Pullen, a staff scientist in NRDC's Health program. "Our thyroid works to ensure the proper timing and development of the brain."
There are reports that 2,4-D can decrease fertility and raise the risk of birth defects. But even though fetuses, infants, and children are at highest risk of these, no studies have looked directly at the effects of 2,4-D on those groups.
Despite concerns about potential health risks, in 2014 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved the combined use of 2,4-D and the popular weed killer Roundup (also known as glyphosate, a whole other—and in many ways more worrying—story when it comes to health and the environment). Enlist Duo, as the combo is called, was already legal in several states. It is used mainly on big farms, where it is sprayed on genetically modified crops called Enlist soy and Enlist corn that have been engineered to be resistant to the poisons...



https://www.nrdc.org/stories/24-d-most-dangerous-pesticide-youve-never-heard

--------------------------------------------------------



Vulnerability of the Bay of Bengal
to Ocean Acidification

2015


https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/2015-049.pdf

-----------------------------
-----------------------------


------------------------------------------------------------


--------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------

 Chapter 3: Corruption

-----------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------


-----------------------------------------------------------------




India, Connected

How the Rockefeller Foundation is bringing electricity to hundreds of villages across India


http://mashable.com/2017/09/17/how-rockefeller-foundation-is-bringing-electricity-to-villages-in-india/#0cLijHA9isqs

----------------------------------


Rockefeller Foundation Launches Smart Power Initiative in India


----------------------------------

Smart Power for Rural Development India Foundation


https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/our-work/grants/smart-power-for-rural-development-india-foundation/

--------------------------------



These 6 thermal power plants are polluting Indian rivers


 1: Tenughat Vidyut Nigam Limited, the Jharkhand government's thermal power plant, discharges all ash into the Katel river, which
ends up choking its entry into Tenughat dam.

2: Ash water discharge from Raichur thermal power station is polluting the Krishna river, says Raghavendra Kushtagi of jan Sangram
Parishat. There have been many instances of crocodile deaths in the river, due to rising pollution levels. 

3: Singrauli power plant: National Thermal Power Corporation's Singrauli power plant in Madhya Pradesh is discharging
unsettled supernatant water from the ash pond into Rihand dam, polluting the only water source in the area.

4: Obra thermal power station: Uttar Pradesh's state-owned Obra thermal power plant discharges ash slurry directly into the Son River.
Dehli based non-profit Centre for Science and Environment found mercury accumulation in the fish of this polluted river.

5: Anpara thermal power station: Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited's Anpara plant discharges ash slurry directly into Rihand dam. Water in the reservior is entirely contaminated by effluent discharges from industries in the area. The National Green Tribunal in May 2014, ordered installation of zero discharge facilities in all industries of the area.

6: The ash pipes of Chandrapur thermal power station in Maharashtra have several leaks. "The river runs white during monsoons due to ash washing into it. Though complaints have been sent to authorities, the leaks continue," says Shankar Jadhav, a farmer from Chandrapur.

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/gallery/these-6-thermal-power-plants-are-polluting-indian-rivers-50499

--------------------------------------


2010 Mumbai oil spill


 The 2010 Mumbai oil spill occurred after the Panama-flagged MV MSC Chitra (IMO: 7814838) and MV Khalijia 3 (IMO: 8128690)[3][4] collided off the coast of India near Mumbai on Saturday, 7 August 2010 at around 9:50 A.M local time.[5][6] MSC Chitra, which was outbound from South Mumbai's Nava Sheva port, collided with the inbound Khalijia-III, which caused about 200 cargo containers from MSC Chitra to be thrown into the Arabian Sea. Khalijia-III was apparently involved with another mishap on 18 July 2010.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_Mumbai_oil_spill


----------------------------------------


2017 Ennore oil spill


 The 2017 Ennore oil spill was an oil spill that occurred outside the Kamarajar Port in Ernavoor, Tamil Nadu, India, on 28 January 2017.[2][3] The spill occurred when the outbound empty LPG tanker M.T. BW Maple collided with the inbound fully loaded oil tanker M.T. Dawn Kanchipuram around 04:00 local time.

A report said the volume of the spill could be estimated at 9.9 million US gallons (37,000 m3)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2017_Ennore_oil_spill


---------------------------------------

Four Environmental Disasters Worse Than Gulf Spill


 6/10/10

 Bhopal, India, Gas Leak 

On a December morning in 1984, a cloud of toxic gas leaked from a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, killing more than 3,000 people in a span of days and poisoning hundreds of thousands more in the years to come. The Indian government’s count of fatalities caused by the accident stands at about 15,000, making it the deadliest man-made environmental disaster in history.

http://www.newsweek.com/four-environmental-disasters-worse-gulf-spill-73449

----------------------------------------

The Chlorine Gas Leak at Jamshedpur


May 31, 2008
On the afternoon of May 27, the people of Jamshedpur were caught unaware. They were exposed to a dense, pale green, pungent and poisonous gas, Chlorine. This gas had leaked from an unused cylinder lying in the Tata Motor’s water treatment plant for the past 10 years. By the next day, around 150 to 200 people had been hospitalised. The affected people also included company employees and their family members. So far no deaths have been reported. Later, in a statement, Tata Motors claimed that the chlorine leak has been plugged and about 60 to 70 residents who reported breathing difficulty were admitted to the Tata Motors hospital in Jamshedpur. The Chief Minister of Jharkahnd, Madhu Koda, alleged that negligence by Tata Motors had led to the leakage of chlorine gas.

http://www.idsa.in/idsastrategiccomments/TheChlorineGasLeakatJamshedpur_MJoshi_310508

-----------------------------------------



Oil spill off Mumbai worse than estimated


October 09, 2013

The oil spill on the Uran coast close to Mumbai is larger than what was estimated, the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has said. The admission came two days after the leak of crude oil from an ONGC pipeline. It took 12 hours to cap.
Initially the MPCB estimated that 1,000 litres of oil had washed into the sea. On Wednesday, it said the figure could be thrice more. “The leakage started at 8.30 p.m. on Sunday and it was arrested around 11 a.m. the following day. This means that a lot of oil has seeped into the sea. It is definitely more than thrice the amount the ONGC estimated,” said Dr. Y.B. Sontakke, MPCB’s regional officer for Navi Mumbai.
The MPCB has sought a report from the Directorate of Industrial Health and Safety which has gathered samples from Uran to study the concentration of oil in the water and soil.
ONGC spokesperson S.K. Pathak, however, maintained that the slick was minor.“The leakage was contained in the channel itself. A minor amount went into the sea,” he said.
When The Hindu visited the area on Tuesday, several fishermen said they would not be able to go to sea for a few weeks because the fish would be either dead or unfit for consumption. Deepak Apte from the Bombay Natural History Society said whether the slick was big or small, the impact on marine life is always there.“This spot, especially, is where oil spills have occurred earlier. It will definitely have some impact on mangroves. This is also the period soon after seeding, so the impact will be greater,” he said.
In the recent past, major oil spills have caused major damage to the ecology.In August 2010, the collision of merchant ships MSC Chitra and MV Khalija 3 off Mumbai’s coast spilled over 800 tons of oil into the sea. Over 8.57 lakh mangroves along the coastlines of Mumbai, Thane and Raigad districts were severely affected.
In January 2011, ONGC’s Mumbai-Uran trunk pipeline burst spilling oil across four sq.km. off the Mumbai coast.
In August 2011, MV Rak which was carrying 60,000 metric tons of coal, 290 tons of furnace oil and 50 tons of fuel oil, sank.

http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/oil-spill-off-mumbai-worse-than-estimated/article5218266.ece


-------------------------

MINOR & MAJOR OIL SPILLS IN INDIAN WATERS (SINCE 1982)
http://indiancoastguard.gov.in/WriteReadData/Bulletin/201512290521575317057Spillssince1982.pdf

-------------------------

Status of oil pollution in Indian coastal waters

http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/9582/1/fc.pdf


-----------------------

Oil Spill Disasters: Why Indian Disaster Management Process needs a Review?


http://www.clearias.com/oil-spill-disasters/


-----------------------

Chennai oil spill 10 times bigger than reported, companies whose ships collided misled government

 

 February 3, 2017

 

Talking exclusively to India Today, Coast Guard IG S Paramesh said the ships involved in collision tried to minimize the scale of the spill.


http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/chennai-oil-spill-10-times-bigger-than-reported/1/873789.html


-----------------------

Case studies of some major oil spills around India


2000

http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/1641

------------------------

Oil spill threatens India's nesting turtles

February 3, 2017

https://phys.org/news/2017-02-oil-threatens-india-turtles.html


----------------------------------

After Oil Spill, Unique Mangrove Forest Faces More Threats

 

A new report calls the December 2014 accident a “serious wake-up call”—although its effects appear less serious than first feared.

 

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/05/150507-sundarbans-india-bangladesh-oil-spill-royal-bengal-tiger-irrawaddy-dolphin-bay-of-bengal/


------------------------------

India's Reliance hires Rothschild banker as M&A head-sources


 September 7, 2011

MUMBAI, Sept 7 (Reuters) - Reliance Industries , India’s largest listed firm, has hired a senior banker from Rothschild in India to head its in-house acquisition team, sources said on Wednesday, as the energy major looks to bolster its presence in key businesses.
Navin Wadhwani is joining Reliance, India’s largest listed firm, from Rothschild, where he was a managing director in the investment banking division, two sources with knowledge of the matter said.
A Reliance spokesman declined to comment, while Rothschild was not immediately available to comment.

Reliance, controlled by Indian billionaire Mukesh Ambani, the world’s ninth-richest man, has interests in refining, oil and gas exploration, petrochemicals and retail, and has been looking to expand into telecom and financial services.
“It’s a clear indication that the company is seriously looking at M&A to grow its businesses,” said Jagannadham Thunuguntla, head of research at SMC Global, referring to the hiring.
“The company has huge cash balance and the BP deal has also bolstered their cash position. The market has been expecting them to do a multi-billion dollar acquisition for some time,” he said.
In February, Reliance agreed to sell a stake in 23 of its oil and gas blocks, including some in the KG basin, to BP in a $7.2 billion deal.
Analysts have said the deal would help Reliance expand its deepsea exploration and development off India’s east coast, and also give it financial muscle to buy shale gas assets in the United States.
As of March 31, Reliance’s cash and cash equivalents were at $9.5 billion.
In June, Reliance said it would buy Bharti Enterprises’ stakes in two insurance joint ventures with France’s AXA to build on moves beyond its core energy business.
It bought telecoms business Infotel Broadband in a $1 billion deal in 2010 and in August 2010, it bought a stake in hotel chain EIH Ltd , which runs the luxury Oberoi and Trident hotels.
Reliance struck three shale gas joint ventures in the United States last year, including a $1.7 billion deal with Atlas Energy to own 40 percent of its Marcellus Shale operations in the eastern United States. (Reporting by Sumeet Chatterjee and Prashant Mehra; Editing by Aradhana Aravindan)


 http://www.reuters.com/article/reliance-rothschild-ma/indias-reliance-hires-rothschild-banker-as-ma-head-sources-idUSL3E7K72N820110907

---------------------------------


BP, Mukesh Ambani tie up for Rs 40,000 crore oil plan for India

 Jun 16, 2017

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/energy/oil-gas/bp-mukesh-ambani-tie-up-for-rs-40000-crore-oil-plan-for-india/articleshow/59162067.cms

------------------------------------


  We can see how the oil companies are still behind many of the private companies that deal in the cleaning up of toxic waste, such as Cleantech. We can see how companies such as BP,  continue to profit off of oil spills, while investing in companies that make money cleaning up the toxic waste left by these companies.

This is criminal what many of these companies and people are doing, and these people need to be stopped.


-----------------------------------

Bp Ventures Portfolio

 BP Ventures identifies and invests in private, high growth, game-changing
technology companies, accelerating cutting edge innovations across the entire energy spectrum.


 The investment portfolio is primarily focused on emerging technologies in oil and gas exploration and production and downstream conversion processes. BPV also partners with entrepreneurial companies specialising in biotech, water, advanced materials, low carbon, mobility and digital technology.


Funds:

Israel Cleantech – focuses on backing Israel’s emerging clean technology companies

VPVP – US focused Cleantech Fund

 http://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/en/corporate/pdf/bp-ventures-portfolio-2017.pdf

------------------------------------


Israel Offering to Help Clean Up India's Filthy Ganges River

  Jul 20, 2015

The holy river streams from the Himalayas, passing through 29 Indian cities and picking up more contaminants in each.


Israeli cleantech might yet come to the rescue of the sacred but polluted goddess river Ganges, an Israeli envoy told the Indian press Sunday. An Israeli delegation of water experts, from government and private enterprise, has been invited to visit India next week to meet with officials and presumably to gain a first-hand impression of the problem - which is vast.

 http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/science/1.666846

-----------------------------------

The Rothschilds in India (BRICS?)


  Mar 4, 2015

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2ci0WJzAfw

-----------------------------------

Had it not been for the Rothschild, India wouldn’t be so poor today. How?


 Jan, 2016


 http://thevoiceofnation.com/latest-news/had-it-not-been-for-the-rothschild-india-wouldnt-be-so-poor-today-how/


-------------------------------------

The Rothschild Plan To Develop India – FDI Series Part III


June 18, 2016
 http://greatgameindia.com/rothschild-plan-develop-india-fdi-series-part-iii/

-----------------------------------

The Rothschilds of India


March 16, 2014

'Bombay: Exploring the Jewish Urban Heritage' tells the story of the Baghdadi Jews of Bombay, more specifically those of the Sassoon family, through the buildings and monuments they built and left behind.

 When Prof. Shaul Sapir, an Israeli of Indian Baghdadi origin, came to my office and asked me to release his book entitled Bombay: Exploring the Jewish Urban Heritage, I was skeptical. Did he really mean urban heritage? As I went through his meticulously researched and visually appealing book, I realized that he did. The book tells the story of the Baghdadi Jews of Bombay, more specifically those of the Sassoon family, through the buildings and monuments they built and left behind.

Sapir says that urban historians have neglected the Jewish connection to Bombay’s landscape and he hopes his book will fill this gap. How many Mumbaikars know, for instance, that the famous Flora Fountain, a landmark in the heart of today’s Mumbai (Bombay), is probably named after Flora Sassoon? The Sassoons, who trace their ancestry to Spain, came to be known as the “Rothschilds of India” because of their wealth and philanthropy. The first Sassoon came to Bombay from Baghdad in 1832. The family flourished in the tolerant environment of Bombay and amassed a fortune, initially through their involvement in the opium trade between the British and China.

http://www.jpost.com/Magazine/Books/The-Rothschilds-of-India-345506

---------------------------------


India – Crime of the Century: Narendra Modi & Rothschild’s BIS Failed Financial Coup


21 Jan 2017


On 8 November, Narendra Modi, the Indian Prime Minister, brutally declared all 500 (US$ 7) and 1,000 rupee-notes invalid, unless exchanged or deposited in a bank or post office account until 31 December 2016. After this date, all unexchanged ‘old’ money is invalid – lost. Barely half of Indians have bank accounts. India’s Great Rupee Fail ~ Bloomberg
The final goal is speedy global demonetization. India is a test case – a huge one, covering 1.3 billion people.
If it works in India, it works throughout the developing world. That’s the evil thought behind it. “Tests” are already running in Europe.
The Nordic countries, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, are moving rapidly towards cashless societies. Electronic money, instead of cash, allows the hegemon to control the entire western world, all those who are enslaved to the dollar monetary system.
Meaning literally everybody outside the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) that includes, China, Russia, most of Central Asia, Iran, Pakistan and – yes, India is an apparent candidate to join the SCO alliance. Japan Shares Plunge Day Before China Releases New Gold Backed Yuan

https://politicalvelcraft.org/2017/01/21/india-crime-of-the-century-narendra-modi-rothschilds-bis-failed-financial-coup/

----------------------------------


H146 - Desh ab Rockefellar-Rothschilde lobby chalate hain ; Ambani ya Bharat Sarkar (Govt.) nahi


 Feb 17, 2013


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0XftK_lH8A


----------------------------------


Colonization of India



British Colonization of India was a Rothschild Venture, through The Crown.
India was already a highly "developed" and advanced civilization for 4000+ years when the British stepped on Indian shores and it is entirely because of the British that India became backward and underdeveloped, and remains so to this day.
In 1600, the East India Company was granted the Charter to trade with India.
The Rothschild family owned the trading company British East India Company. In 1857, they decided to merge with the British Empire.
After conquering Bengal in India, the Rothschilds set up a notoriously corrupt system of administration, whose sole objective was to shamelessly plunder the countless riches of Bengal which was the richest province in the entire world during that time.
Bengal was literally turned into a graveyard of death and desolation. Millions of the poor were eliminated through the spread of diseases like the bubonic plague.
In 1757 at the Battle of Plassey, Clive and British troops secured Bengal under the control of the East India Company, and therefore British rule. The Nawabs(dukes) and the Rajas(Kings) and Zamindars(Landowners) were robbed of their priceless treasures.
The Rothschilds then moved this entire horde of tons of gold looted from the people of Bengal to London. It was with this gold looted from Bengal that the Rothchild family set up the privately owned Bank of England.
In the decades that followed, the Rothschild banking family set up the Federal Reserve Bank of America which to this day indulges in day light robbery of the American people.
The Rothschilds then set up the World Bank, the IMF and the Bank for International Settlements.
The Rothschilds use banks such as the World Bank, the IMF, the Bank for International Settlements to institutionalize the robbery of the third world
Banks such as Citibank and Standard Chartered bank etc. were also set up with the secret support of the Rothschilds to continue the robbery of third world and Indian people.
When Indians revolted in the year 1857, they were told that the East India Company was abolished and India will be administered directly by the CROWN.
What most People do not know to this day is the fact that CROWN does not mean the King or Queen of Britain, but a privately owned Corporation headed again by the Rothschilds, who also owned the East India Company!
The Crown is the private corporate City State of London. It has Council of 12 members (Board of Directors) headed by a Mayor, whose election is regulated by the Rothschild.
Indians were tricked and cheated with a simple name change game! The exploitation and robbery of India, its resources and people continued till 1947 under this CROWN. In 1947, India and its people were again tricked into believing that we were granted "Independence" through the complicity of Pandit Nehru. (will be addressed in detail in next post)
Under secret orders from the Rothschilds given to him through his Jewish girl friend Edwina Mountbatten who is a close relative of the British Queen, Nehru turned India and its people into rag tag clad beggars.
The richest people in the country are undoubtedly the politicians who continue their thievery and robbery of India, for the Rothschilds banking family as their BENAMI frontmen.
The robbery of India and its people continues to this day. And proof for this is evident in the fact that nearly 800 million Indians live at less than 50 rupees per day, while Indian Parliament is full of politicians who are millionaires!
The Rothschilds are now married into the British Royal Family and many aristocratic families of Europe. The Kohinoor Diamond which was robbed by Robert Clive was presented to the British Queen.


http://conspiracy.wikia.com/wiki/Colonization_of_India

----------------------------------


India’s de facto carbon tax is excessive


Feb 2017

It is not necessary for India, whose per capita consumption of electricity is barely half the world average, to embrace the highest rate of carbon taxes in the world.

 http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/3s3lXBCY4Ixi0JeB5N9rYL/Indias-de-facto-carbon-tax-is-excessive.html

--------------------------------

UN ushers in ambitious 2030 Sustainable Development Goals

  Jan, 2016

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development calls on countries to begin efforts to achieve the 17 SDGs over the next 15 years.

With the start of the new year, the UN on Friday ushered in the ambitious 2030 Sustainable Development Goals that aim to end poverty, hunger and assure gender equally while building a life of dignity for all over the next 15 years.
The 15-year cycle of the anti-poverty Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) came to an end with 2015 paving the way for the SDGs, an even more ambitious set of goals to banish a host of social ills by 2030.
“The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are our shared vision of humanity and a social contract between the world’s leaders and the people,” UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon had said of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted unanimously by 193 Heads of State and other top leaders at a summit here in September.
“They are a to-do list for people and planet, and a blueprint for success,” he had said of the 17 goals and 169 targets to wipe out poverty, fight inequality and tackle climate change over the next 15 years.
> Read the Agenda for 2030 SDGs

http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/UN-ushers-in-ambitious-2030-Sustainable-Development-Goals/article13975088.ece

----------------------------------


Agenda 21

 

 Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed at local, national, and global levels.
Opposition
Anti-Agenda 21 conspiracy theories have circulated in the U.S.; some Tea Party movement activists and others promoted the notion that Agenda 21 was part of a UN plot to deny property rights, undermine U.S. sovereignty, or force citizens to move to cities. Activists believed that the non-binding UN resolution was "the linchpin in a plot to subjugate humanity under an eco-totalitarian regime." The conspiracy theory had its roots in anti-environmentalist ideology and opposition to land-use regulation.
Agenda 21 fears have played a role in opposition to local government's efforts to promote resource and land conservation, build bike lanes, and construct hubs for public transportation. The non-profit group ICLEI — Local Governments for Sustainability USA was targeted by anti-Agenda 21 activists. In 2012 Glenn Beck co-wrote a dystopian novel titled Agenda 21 based in part on concepts discussed in the UN plan. In the same year, fears of Agenda 21 "went mainstream" when the Republican National Committee adopted a platform resolution stated that "We strongly reject the U.N. Agenda 21 as erosive of American sovereignty."
Several state and local governments have considered or passed motions and legislation opposing Agenda 21. Most such bills failed, "either dying in committee, getting defeated on the statehouse floor or – in the case of Missouri's 2013 bill – getting vetoed by the governor." In Texas, for example, broadly worded legislation that would prohibit any governmental entity from accepting from or granting money to any "nongovernmental or intergovernmental organization accredited by the United Nations to implement a policy that originated in the Agenda 21 plan" was defeated because it could have cut off funding for groups such as 4-H, the Boy Scouts of America, and the Texas Wildlife Association. In Arizona, a similarly sweeping bill was introduced in the Arizona State Legislature seeking to mandate that the state could not "adopt or implement the creed, doctrine, or principles or any tenet" of Agenda 21 and to prohibit the state "implementing programs of, expending any sum of money for, being a member of, receiving funding from, contracting services from, or giving financial or other forms of aid to" an array of sustainability organizations. The bill, which was opposed by the state chamber of commerce and the mayor of Phoenix, was defeated in 2012. Alabama was one state that did adopt an anti-Agenda 21 resolution, unanimously passing in 2012 a measure to block "any future effort to 'deliberately or inadvertently infringe or restrict private property rights without due process, as may be required by policy recommendations originating in, or traceable to 'Agenda 21.'"
Baltic nations formed the Baltic 21 coalition as a regional expression of Agenda 21.


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agenda_21

-----------------------------------

Sustainable Development Goals Agenda 2030 India

 Goal 1:
End poverty in all its forms everywhere
Goal 2:
End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable
agriculture
Goal 3:
Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
Goal 4:
Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning
opportunities for all
Goal 5:
Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
Goal 6:
Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
Goal 10:
Reduce inequality within and among countries
Goal 11:
Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Goal 13:
Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
Goal 16:
Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide
access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at
all levels


http://www.socialwatch.org/sites/default/files/swindia/2017-Civil-Society-Report-on-SDGs-Agenda-2030-INDIA.pdf



------------------------------------------------------------


--------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------

 Chapter 4: India vs Pakistan

-----------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------


-----------------------------------------------------------------


Tensions Between India And Pakistan May Rise Over Nuclear Deal


 

 At the recent visit of India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi to the U.S. in May 2016, the closer relationship between the U.S. and India was clear. A logical step forward was further seen when U.S. President Obama stated his approval for India to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). While this would be a great move for overall worldwide security and nuclear non-proliferation, there is a danger of greater tensions between India and Pakistan.

oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/Tensions-Between-India-And-Pakistan-May-Rise-Over-Nuclear-Deal.html



---------------------------------------------------


When Indo-Pak Armies Met At Rann of Kutch, Leading To Operation Gibraltar And 1965 War


 October 19, 2016

In most of the Indo-Pakistan wars, conflicts didn't start all of a sudden. In fact, history has witnessed that small skirmishes and battles between two armies have led to full fledged war.  

www.indiatimes.com/news/india/when-indo-pak-armies-met-at-rann-of-kutch-leading-to-operation-gibraltar-and-1965-war-263845.html

--------------------------------------

 Many times politicians are bribed with money, in order to pass laws that would benefit more Islamic influence in government. This is a good example of why so many politicians submit to forming Islamic law, and take bribes in order to do it.

 Pakistan is under full Islamic Sharia law, and bullies the government of India into forming an Islamic government, just like the government of Pakistan.

India has forms of various hybrid Sharia Law, and various other forms of hybrid government. We are concerned that the government of India might become overthrown by Islamic militants. The free world needs to put an end to this conflict, both of these countries have nuclear weapons, and both these governments practice different forms of Sharia Law. We are surprised that the people of the world have allowed countries such as Sharia controlled Pakistan, to continue to have nuclear weapons. What is to stop these governments under Sharia Law, with nuclear weapons, to one day threaten all free countries with these nuclear devices.

-----------------------------

Muslims to play key role in Indian elections


With elections now underway in India, the Muslim vote is of vital importance to the outcome. The country's single largest religious minority makes up 14 percent of India's population of more than 1.2 billion people.

 http://www.dw.com/en/muslims-to-play-key-role-in-indian-elections/a-17558549



---------------------------------

India: Muslims riot after Friday prayers, attack police and Hindu temple, many policemen injured





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/08/india-muslims-riot-after-friday-prayers-attack-police-and-hindu-temple-many-policemen-injured

---------------------------------------------------



Pakistan: Muslim group issues fatwa targeting journalists as “enemies of the mujahideen”





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/10/pakistan-muslim-group-issues-fatwa-targeting-journalists-as-enemies-of-the-mujahideen

----------------------------------------


Pakistan: Reporter accused of apostasy, gets death threat for reporting about plight of Ahmadis and Christians




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/10/pakistan-reporter-accused-of-apostasy-gets-death-threat-for-reporting-about-plight-of-ahmadis-and-ch

-----------------------------------------

Pakistan to continue ban on “blasphemous” YouTube indefinitely




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/02/pakistan-to-continue-ban-on-blasphemous-youtube-indefinitely


--------------------------------------


Google, Yahoo, YouTube offend Muslims, blocked in Pakistan





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/06/google-yahoo-youtube-offend-muslims-blocked-in-pakistan

-------------------------------------


Pakistan restoring access to YouTube, but will block videos offensive to Muslims — beheadings? Nope — cartoons





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/05/pakistan-restoring-access-to-youtube-but-will-block-videos-offensive-to-muslims-beheadings-nope

------------------------------------


Pakistan, in fury over Draw Muhammad day, shuts down Facebook, YouTube





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/05/pakistan-in-fury-over-draw-muhammad-day-shuts-down-facebook-youtube

-----------------------------------

Pakistani government: Facebook heeded its demand and has removed 85% of “blasphemous” material




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/03/pakistani-government-facebook-heeded-its-demand-and-has-removed-85-of-blasphemous-material

--------------------------


Pakistan: Facebook helping Pakistani officials remove “blasphemous” content





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/03/pakistan-facebook-helping-pakistani-officials-remove-blasphemous-content


--------------------------


Pakistan asks Facebook and Twitter to identify Pakistanis outside country who post anti-Islam material





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/03/pakistan-asks-facebook-and-twitter-to-identify-pakistanis-outside-country-who-post-anti-islam-material

----------------------------


Pakistan: High Court orders government to prevent “blasphemers” from leaving country





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/03/pakistan-high-court-orders-government-to-prevent-blasphemers-from-leaving-country


-----------------------------

Pakistan: Sharia court rules blasphemers can only be punished with death penalty







----------------------------


Pakistani man sentenced to death over “blasphemous” text message





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/06/pakistani-man-sentenced-to-death-over-blasphemous-text-message


-----------------------------

Pakistan: More Christians arrested for sending “blasphemous” text messages





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/07/pakistan-more-christians-arrested-for-sending-blasphemous-text-messages

-------------------------

Pakistani government sends text to millions warning against posting “blasphemous content”





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/05/pakistani-government-sends-text-to-millions-warning-against-posting-blasphemous-content

-----------------------------


Pakistan: Christian pastor gets life imprisonment for “blasphemous” text message





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/05/pakistan-christian-pastor-gets-life-imprisonment-for-blasphemous-text-message

------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims threaten to kill Christian lawyer for defending people against blasphemy charges





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/05/pakistan-muslims-threaten-to-kill-christian-lawyer-for-defending-people-against-blasphemy-charges


-----------------------------------------


Pakistan: Jihadists open fire at home of lawyer defending accused blasphemer




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/12/pakistan-jihadists-open-fire-at-home-of-lawyer-defending-accused-blasphemer


--------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims murder Christian leader imprisoned for blasphemy







-------------------------------------

Pakistan: Three burqa-clad sisters shoot and kill man after accusing him of blasphemy




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/04/pakistan-three-burqa-clad-sisters-shoot-and-kill-man-after-accusing-him-of-blasphemy


 ----------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims threaten riots if Christian woman accused of “blasphemy” is released




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/10/pakistan-muslims-threaten-riots-if-christian-woman-accused-of-blasphemy-is-released

-----------------------------------

Pakistan: Religious minorities 4% of population, 50% of blasphemy cases





--------------------------------

Pakistan: 300 rally in support of man who killed foe of blasphemy laws






----------------------------------

Pakistan: 100,000 attend funeral of killer of blasphemy laws foe




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/03/pakistan-100000-attend-funeral-of-killer-of-blasphemy-laws-foe

-------------------------------


Pakistan: Muslim blasphemers pardoned; Christian blasphemers put to death


May 17, 2014

 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/05/pakistan-muslim-blasphemers-pardoned-christian-blasphemers-put-to-death

------------------------------


Pakistan: 1,000 Muslim clerics ask Zardari to “ensure his place in heaven” by pardoning killer of foe of blasphemy law





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/08/pakistan-1000-muslim-clerics-as-zardari-to-ensure-his-place-in-heaven-by-pardoning-killer-of-foe-of


-------------------------


Pakistan’s new Islamic supremacist prime minister “soft on Islamic extremism and won’t crack down on militants”

 






--------------------------

Pakistan: Main suspect in murder of Christian cabinet member released as death threats stall prosecution





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/07/pakistan-main-suspect-in-murder-of-christian-cabinet-member-released-as-death-threats-stall-prosecution

--------------------------------

Pakistan’s government won’t abolish blasphemy law because it “fears the reaction of extremists”

 







-------------------------------


Pakistan: 68 lawyers accused of blasphemy for protesting against namesake of caliph Umar





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/05/pakistan-68-lawyers-accused-of-blasphemy-for-protesting-against-namesake-of-caliph-umar

-------------------------------

India: Islamic jihadists bomb New Delhi courthouse, murdering 10 people

 




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/09/india-islamic-jihadists-bomb-new-delhi-courthouse-murdering-10-people



--------------------------


Pakistan: Islamic jihadists murder 11, injure 24 in jihad-martyrdom suicide bombing at court







-----------------------


Pakistan: Acquitted of blasphemy, gunned down anyway





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/03/pakistan-acquitted-of-blasphemy-gunned-down-anyway

-----------------------------------


Pakistan’s blasphemy law used to “kill innocent Christians without giving them a chance to prove their innocence”





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/03/pakistans-blasphemy-law-used-to-kill-innocent-christians-without-giving-them-a-chance-to-prove-their-innocence

----------------------------------


Islamic cleric in Pakistan offers $5,800 reward to anyone who kills Christian woman accused of blasphemy





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/12/islamic-cleric-in-pakistan-offers-5800-reward-to-anyone-who-kills-christian-woman-accused-of-blasphe

-----------------------------------


Pakistan’s Minister for Minorities condemns Islamic cleric’s offer of reward to anyone who kills Christian woman accused of blasphemy





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/12/pakistans-minister-for-minorities-condemns-islamic-clerics-offer-of-reward-to-anyone-who-kills-chris


---------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslim mob attacks Hindu temples and Sikh gurdwaras over alleged blasphemy





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/03/pakistan-muslim-mob-attacks-hindu-temples-and-sikh-gurdwaras-over-alleged-blasphemy

-------------------------------

Election jihad: 16 killed in Pakistan election day jihad bombings





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/05/election-jihad-16-killed-in-pakistan-election-day-jihad-bomings

------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims kidnap Christian and Hindu underage girls, force them to convert to Islam and marry Muslims





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/01/pakistan-muslims-kidnap-christian-and-hindu-underage-girls-force-them-to-convert-to-islam-and-marry-muslims

--------------------------------------

Pakistan: Higher Court orders kidnapped Christian woman to stay with her Muslim kidnapper husband





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/10/pakistan-higher-court-orders-kidnapped-christian-woman-to-stay-with-her-muslim-kidnapper-husband

-----------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims gang-rape seven-year-old Christian girl, kidnap her father to stop him reporting them








------------------------------------

India: Muslim accused of sexually assaulting 4-year-old girl blames her for enticing him




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/12/india-muslim-accused-of-sexually-assaulting-4-year-old-girl-blames-her-for-enticing-him

 ----------------------------------------

Pakistani publication worries Islam’s image tarnished by CAIR rep’s pedophilia arrest







-----------------------

Woman sold in public auction in Pakistan — for $3,200






-----------------------

Pakistan: Official panel that advises the government on Islamic law opposes laws against child marriage




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/06/pakistan-official-panel-that-advises-the-government-on-islamic-law-opposes-laws-against-child-marriage

-----------------------


Nearly Two-Thirds of Human Trafficking Victims Are from Asia

 

 

The 2014 Global Slavery Index (GSI) found that there are nearly 36 million victims of human trafficking worldwide. Of that, 36 million, nearly two-thirds, are from Asia. Without serious attention from the U.S. and Asian governments, millions of adults and children will continue to be forced into bonded labor, sex trafficking, slave-like conditions, and child soldiering in Asia.
According to the GSI, India, China, Pakistan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Thailand are in the top 10 countries with the highest number of trafficking victims in the world. India tops the list with 14 million victims of trafficking, China comes in second at 3.2 million, and Pakistan is third with 2.1 million trafficking victims. India and Pakistan are also in the top 10 countries in the world with the highest prevalence of human trafficking.

 http://dailysignal.com/2014/11/20/nearly-two-thirds-human-trafficking-victims-asia/


-----------------------

Punished For Being Raped and For Accusing Rapists: Women's Burden Under Sharia

 28 Oct 2014

ISIS has just be-headed a woman in Baquba because she dared to resist being raped. In the process of struggling to defend herself, she actually killed her would-be rapist, an ISIS warrior. The woman was at home recovering from a medical illness.

This is precisely the crime that led to Reyhaneh Jabbari’s execution in Iran at dawn this past Saturday–except that the Iranian regime first jailed and tortured her for five years. Her life might have been spared if her victim’s family had forgiven her, but that did not happen. Her would-be rapist was a former member of Iran’s Intelligence Ministry.
And thus we learn that under Sharia law the penalty for resisting rape is torture and death for women.
What happens when a woman does not or cannot resist being raped?
In 2008, in Somalia, 13-year old Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow was accused of adultery (“zina”–in her case, sex outside of marriage). She had reported being gang-raped to the controlling jihadist group there, al-Shabab. The very act of accusing her rapists condemned her– but not her rapists– to a brutal death-by-stoning at the hands of fifty men. She begged for mercy, crying out up until the moment of her death.
Sharia courts in Pakistan have punished thousands of raped women who dared accuse their attacker of the crime with long term imprisonment. Bangladesh has flogged, beaten, and imprisoned raped women.
Families of rape victims in Afghanistan have honor-murdered their daughters for the shame of having been raped. Most recently, in 2014, one ten-year-old victim who was raped by a mullah in a mosque was saved, temporarily, by an Afghan and international woman’s group which has, so far, successfully persuaded her family not to kill her.
We have all heard about Aisha Bibi or Muhktar Mai, who reported her more powerful Pakistani gang-rapists and managed to get some convicted. She lives with permanent death threats–she also shelters other such rape victims and their families. A very powerful opera has been written and performed about her bravery.
We have witnessed the en-masse male sexual assault of veiled and unveiled women in Tahrir Square in Cairo. Human Rights Watch refers to this Square as “Rape Central.” Journalist Judy Bachrach, who lived in Cairo, documented the extraordinary level of normalized street harassment of infidel girls and women in Cairo.
I studied and wrote about an atrocious three day “pogrom” perpetrated by three hundred men against thirty nine impoverished women in 2001. Their crime? They had dared to work as cleaning women and secretaries for an infidel company. This took place in a province in Algeria known as Hassi Messaoud. The rapist-killers had been stirred to action by a Friday sermon against “evil” infidel influence and they tore out of the mosque.
Yelling “Allahu Akhbar,” they gang-raped, tortured, stabbed, mutilated, buried alive and murdered these women as well as other “evil” women who owned hairdressing salons. The police had to lock up ninety-five women to protect them from the rampaging men. Hundreds more begged to be incarcerated, but there was no more room. Incredibly, some survivors brought charges. Twenty-six men (out of three hundred) were sentenced to jail terms. This is nothing short of a miracle.
In many Muslim countries– and Hindu India– women have been viewed as tempting men, overcoming them, victimizing them,  and the men are not viewed as licentious, promiscuous, lusty scoundrels but as helpless victims. This used to be true in the West as well and to a small extent, it still is. Rape is now understood as a crime and is prosecuted, not normalized, in the West.
However, if the rape is known to a Muslim woman’s family in a Muslim country, it may mean her death sentence. If she and her family report the rape to the authorities, the rape victim (and sometimes her family as well) may be further victimized. Death threats are common. The rape victim is usually jailed and once in custody will be routinely raped and sometimes impregnated by police officers and interrogators.
http://www.breitbart.com/national-security/2014/10/28/punished-for-being-raped-the-burden-of-women-under-sharia/

------------------------


Pakistan: 12-year-old bride “was too afraid to talk to me as I often beat her to teach her manners”


May 11, 2014

https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/05/pakistan-12-year-old-bride-was-too-afraid-to-talk-to-me-as-i-often-beat-her-to-teach-her-manners


-------------------------


Pakistan: Tribal council marries off 8-year-old girl to 26-year-old man





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/04/pakistan-tribal-council-marries-off-8-year-old-girl-to-26-year-old-man


----------------------

93% of women in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan experience sexual violence





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/03/93-of-women-in-the-islamic-republic-of-pakistan-experience-sexual-violence

---------------------------------


Pakistan: 34% of women say men are justified in hitting wives if they argue back




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/pakistan-34-of-women-say-men-are-justified-in-hitting-wives-if-they-argue-back

-----------------------------------

Pakistan: Teen girl forced into sex slavery, then murdered by Muslim brother for “illicit relationships with some men”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/04/pakistan-teen-girl-forced-into-sex-slavery-then-murdered-by-muslim-brother-for-illicit-relationships-with-some-men

-------------------------------------


Pakistan: Major Muslim orgs say law protecting women from abuse is un-Islamic




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/03/pakistan-major-muslim-orgs-say-law-protecting-women-from-abuse-is-un-islamic

---------------------------------


Pakistan: 675 “honor killings” in the first nine months of 2011





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/12/pakistan-675-honor-killings-in-the-first-nine-months-of-2011


--------------------------------


Pakistan: “800 women were victims of ‘honor killings’ — and 2,900 women reported raped — almost eight a day”





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/08/pakistan-800-women-were-victims-of-honor-killings-murders-aimed-at-preserving-the-honor-of-male-r


---------------------------

Pakistan: 500 women and girls murdered in Islamic honor killings each year, many more go unreported





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/pakistan-500-women-and-girls-murdered-in-islamic-honor-killings-each-year-many-more-go-unreported

-----------------------

Pakistan Taliban say they have 500 female jihad/martyrdom suicide bombers ready to die





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/pakistan-taliban-say-they-have-500-female-jihadmartyrdom-suicide-bombers-ready-to-die

------------------------

Pakistan: Jihadists kidnap nine-year-old girl, try to use her as suicide bomber




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/06/pakistan-jihadists-kidnap-nine-year-old-girl-try-to-use-her-as-suicide-bomber

---------------------

India: Muslim men lure Hindu girls with promises of marriage, then they disappear: 84 Hindu girls missing this year




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/12/india-muslim-men-lure-hindu-girls-with-promises-of-marriage-then-they-disappear-84-hindu-girls-missi



--------------------

Pakistan: Forced conversions of Hindu girls to Islam “extremely common”





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/06/pakistan-forced-conversions-of-hindu-girls-to-islam-extremely-common

--------------------------


“Every Hindu in Pakistan is bearing atrocities, girls are kidnapped and forcibly converted but now, Hindu boys are being made to embrace Islam”





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/08/every-hindu-in-pakistan-is-bearing-atrocities-girls-are-kidnapped-and-forcibly-converted-but-now-hin


---------------------


Pakistani Hindu: “Sexual assault, forced conversion, abduction and humiliation is all this country has given us”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/11/pakistani-hindu-sexual-assault-forced-conversion-abduction-and-humiliation-is-all-this-country-has-g


---------------------


Pakistan: 14-year-old girl kidnapped, forcibly converted to Islam




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/08/pakistan-14-year-old-girl-kidnapped-forcibly-converted-to-islam

-------------------

Pakistan: Catholic woman kidnapped, drugged, and forced to convert to Islam and marry a Muslim may now be sold abroad




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/06/pakistan-catholic-woman-kidnapped-drugged-and-forced-to-convert-to-islam-and-marry-a-muslim-may-now



------------------------


India: Rich Muslims buying girls for temporary marriage





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/12/india-rich-muslims-buying-girls-for-temporary-marriage


----------------------


India: Female Muslim leader says women in tight clothes “pollute the environment,” provoke rape


 

https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/04/india-female-muslim-leader-says-women-in-tight-clothes-pollute-the-environment-provoke-rape

 ----------------------------------------



Pakistan: Muslims rape and murder Christian boy, police register death as natural and not suspicious




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/09/pakistan-muslims-rape-and-murder-christian-boy-police-register-death-as-natural-and-not-suspicious

--------------------------------------


Pakistan: Council of Islamic Ideology rules DNA tests not acceptable as primary evidence in rape cases





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/06/pakistan-council-of-islamic-ideology-rules-dna-tests-not-acceptable-as-primary-evidence-in-rape-case

------------------------------------


Pakistan: Rape victim jailed for “concealing” crime




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/12/pakistan-rape-victim-jailed-for-concealing-crime

-----------------------------


Pakistan: Rape victim could be charged with adultery







------------------------------

Pakistan: Rape victim cannot travel abroad







-------------------------------


Pakistan: Christian maid burned alive to keep her from reporting rape





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/03/pakistan-christian-maid-burned-alive-to-keep-her-from-reporting-rape

-------------------------------

Two-year-old raped and left to die because her father refused to convert to Islam







-----------------------------

India: Muslim politician says women who are raped should be hanged




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/04/india-muslim-politician-says-women-who-are-raped-should-be-hanged

-------------------------


Pakistan: Muslim lawyers group threatens to “burn alive” anyone who defends murdered 12-year-old Christian





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/02/pakistan-muslim-lawyers-group-threatens-to-burn-alive-anyone-who-defends-murdered-12-year-old-christ

----------------------


Business as usual: Pakistani Muslim lawyer accused of rape and murder of 12-year-old Christian girl released on bail





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/02/business-as-usual-pakistani-muslim-lawyer-accused-of-rape-and-murder-of-12-year-old-christian-girl-r

----------------------

Arabian nightmares: Hyderabad still a thriving bride bazaar for rich Sheikhs

  

 Oct 02, 2017

 

The recent arrests of eight Sheikhs and a Qazi for their involvement in trafficking and child marriages show how a network of brokers and racketeers lure poor parents into selling their daughters to rich Arabs in the name of marriage in Hyderabad. 

 



Arab Sheiks arrested by the Hyderabad Police on September 20, when they came to the city in search of child brides.

http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/arabian-nightmares-hyderabad-still-a-thriving-bride-bazar-for-rich-sheikhs/story-dcLypwP6lk5l4Lh8dT5fYI.html?li_source=LI&li_medium=recommended-for-you


----------------------------------


Pakistan court orders 12 men freed in gang rape








----------------------------------


Pakistan: Christian women and girls report sexual abuse; Muslim village chief expels 250 Christian families





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/06/pakistan-christian-women-and-girls-report-sexual-abuse-muslim-village-chief-expels-250-christian-fam

------------------------------------


We attended an Islamic religious convention, and the speaker said if you marry a non-Muslim or rape a non-Muslim girl, you will get 70 virgins in heaven”


https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/06/we-attended-an-islamic-religious-convention-and-the-speaker-said-if-you-marry-a-non-muslim-or-rape-a

------------------------------------

Pakistan: Case Lowers Marriageable Age for Girls





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2005/05/pakistan-case-lowers-marriageable-age-for-girls

-----------------------------------

Kashmiri child abuse




 Motivated by jihad to pick up guns. From the India Times, with thanks to Nicolei:

 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2004/08/kashmiri-child-abuse


--------------------------

Pakistan: Islamic supremacists warn that it’s “un-Islamic” for women to vote





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/05/pakistan-islamic-supremacists-warn-that-its-un-islamic-for-women-to-vote

-----------------------

Taliban savages shoot 14-year-old Pakistani schoolgirl campaigning for peace





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/10/taliban-savages-shoot-14-year-old-pakistani-schoolgirl-campaigning-for-peace

------------------------


Pakistani Taliban say they are holding 30 abducted boys said to have crossed into Afghanistan




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/09/pakistani-taliban-say-they-are-holding-30-abducted-boys-said-to-have-crossed-into-afghanistan


-----------------------

Pakistan: Christian teen lynched for flirting with Muslim girl





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/04/pakistan-christian-teen-lynched-for-flirting-with-muslim-girl

------------------------------------


Pakistan: Police kill three Christian boys for having love affairs with Muslim girls





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/07/pakistan-police-kill-three-christian-boys-for-having-love-affairs-with-muslim-girls

--------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims torture two Christian women accused of blasphemy, beat them and paint their faces black




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/07/pakistan-muslims-torture-two-christian-women-accused-of-blasphemy-beat-them-and-paint-their-faces-black



----------------------------------


Pakistan: Christian woman miscarries after brutal beating by Muslims





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/12/pakistan-christian-woman-miscarries-after-brutal-beating-by-muslims


---------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims abduct Christian woman, forcibly convert her to Islam, threaten life of her Christian fiancé





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/10/pakistan-muslims-abduct-christian-woman-forcibly-convert-her-to-islam-threaten-life-of-her-christian-fiance



-----------------------

India’s VP: Western countries wrong to link Islam with terrorism



https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/11/indias-vp-western-countries-wrong-to-link-islam-with-terrorism

 ----------------------------------------


Syrian ambassador to India says that over 20% of refugees to Europe may have links to the Islamic State




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/11/syrian-ambassador-to-india-says-that-over-20-of-refugees-to-europe-may-have-links-to-the-islamic-state

 ----------------------------------------


Captured jihadi in India: “I’m doing Allah’s work by attacking Indians”





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/08/captured-jihadi-in-india-im-doing-allahs-work-by-attacking-indians

 ----------------------------------------


New Islamic State document reveals “grand plan” to wage jihad in India





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/07/new-islamic-state-document-reveals-grand-plan-to-wage-jihad-in-india

 ----------------------------------------


India: 80 Hindu families accept Islam to save their homes from demolition





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/04/india-80-hindu-families-accept-islam-to-save-their-homes-from-demolition



 ----------------------------------------


Pakistan Muslim leader exhorted Muslims to kill Hindus





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/08/pakistan-muslim-leader-exhorted-muslims-to-kill-hindus

------------------------------



India court: Sharia trumps ban on child marriage




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/12/india-court-sharia-trumps-ban-on-child-marriage

-------------------------------

Christian slave freed from Muslim master in Pakistan






--------------------------

Pakistan: Military foils “major terrorist attack” Muslims had planned against Christians for Easter Sunday





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/04/pakistan-military-foils-major-terrorist-attack-muslims-had-planned-against-christians-for-easter-sunday


--------------------------------------


Pakistan: Muslim murders 53 at park as Christians were celebrating Easter






https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/03/pakistan-muslim-murders-53-at-park-as-christians-were-celebrating-easter

----------------------------------


Pakistan: Muslims imprison, torture 9-year-old Christian boy on false claim that he burned Qur’an





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/11/pakistan-muslims-imprison-torture-9-year-old-christian-boy-on-false-claim-that-he-burned-quran

--------------------------------

Pakistani government officials deny that blasphemy laws target Christians





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/02/pakistani-government-officials-deny-that-blasphemy-laws-target-christians


-------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims murder Christian in the street because he refused to work on Sunday






 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/03/pakistan-muslims-murder-christian-in-the-street-because-he-refused-to-work-on-sunday


---------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslim mob chases Christians from homes, demanding they convert to Islam





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/05/pakistan-muslim-mob-chases-christians-from-homes-demanding-they-convert-to-islam

--------------------------------


Pakistan: Police fabricate false blasphemy accusation against Christian






 --------------------------------


Pakistan: Christian arrested after Muslim mob sets his house on fire

 




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/09/pakistan-christian-arrested-after-muslim-mob-sets-his-house-on-fire


------------------------------



Pakistan: Muslims shoot Christian for stopping their harassment of Christian girls




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/08/pakistan-muslims-shoot-christian-for-stopping-their-harassment-of-christian-girls


------------------------------


Pakistan: Christian flood victims forced to convert to Islam, become slaves to Muslims or die

 




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/08/pakistan-christian-flood-victims-forced-to-convert-to-islam-become-slaves-to-muslims-or-die

-----------------------------


Pakistan: Muslims expel all Christians from village




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/11/pakistan-muslim-expel-all-christians-from-village

----------------------------


Pakistan: Islamic State-linked jihadis murder 60 with bomb in Shi’ite mosque








-------------------------------


Pakistan: Sunni Muslim jihadists murder 23 Shia Muslim pilgrims in Baluchistan

 






-------------------------


Pakistan: Rival Islamic jihadists set off bomb in crowded Islamic seminary, killing eight and wounding 67





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/01/pakistan-rival-islamic-jihadists-set-off-bomb-in-crowded-islamic-seminary-killing-eight-and-wounding

------------------------


Pakistan: Islamic jihad group planned kidnap of Shias and Ahmadis for ransom

 





-------------------------

Pakistan: Shi’ites celebrating Ashoura beat three Sunnis to death for insulting them as they passed








------------------------

Pakistan: Islamophobes Sunni jihadists murder eleven Shi’ites in a minibus




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/07/pakistan-islamophobes-sunni-jihadists-murder-eleven-shiites-in-a-minibus

-------------------------


Pakistan: Jihad bomb during Shia procession murders seven, wounds 17





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/11/pakistan-jihad-bomb-during-shia-procession-murders-seven-wounds-17

------------------------

Pakistan: Sunni jihadists murder two, injure 17 with car bomb targeting Shia pilgrims





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/01/pakistan-sunni-jihadists-murder-two-injure-17-with-car-bomb-targeting-shia-pilgrims

-------------------------

Pakistan: Sunni Muslims attack Shi’ite mosque, murder at least 20 people #Muslimlivesmatter






-------------------------------

Shia–Sunni relations


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shia%E2%80%93Sunni_relations

Sunni Islam and Shia Islam are the two major denominations of Islam. Their division traces back to a SunniShia schism following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the year 632AD. A dispute over succession to Muhammad as a caliph of the Islamic community spread across various parts of the world, which led to the Battle of Jamal and Battle of Siffin. The dispute intensified greatly after the Battle of Karbala, in which Hussein ibn Ali and his household were killed by the ruling Umayyad Caliph Yazid I, and the outcry for revenge divided the early Islamic community.
The present demographic breakdown between the two denominations is difficult to assess and varies by source, but a good approximation is that 85–90% of the world's Muslims are Sunni and 10–15% are Shia, with most Shias belonging to the Twelver tradition and the rest divided between many other groups. Sunnis are a majority in most Muslim communities: in Southeast Asia, China, South Asia, Africa, and most of the Arab world. Shia make up the majority of the citizen population in Iraq, Bahrain, Lebanon, Iran and Azerbaijan, as well as being a politically significant minority in Pakistan, Syria and Yemen. Azerbaijan is predominantly Shia; however, practicing adherents are far fewer. Indonesia has the largest number of Sunni Muslims, while Iran has the largest number of Shia Muslims (Twelver) in the world. Pakistan has the second-largest Sunni population in the world, while India has the second-largest Shia Muslim (Twelver) population.
Today, there are differences in religious practice, traditions, and customs, often related to jurisprudence. Although all Muslim groups consider the Quran to be divine, Sunni and Shia have different opinions on hadith.
In recent years, Sunni–Shia relations have been increasingly marked by conflict, particularly the Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict. Sectarian violence persists to this day from Pakistan to Yemen and is a major element of friction throughout the Middle East and South Asia. Tensions between communities have intensified during power struggles, such as the Bahraini uprising, the Iraq War, and most recently the Syrian Civil War and in the formation of the self-styled Islamic State of Iraq and Syria that has launched a genocide against Shias.


Contents


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shia%E2%80%93Sunni_relations


---------------------------------------



Afghanistan: Islamic jihadists kidnap Indian Jesuit priest


 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/06/afghanistan-islamic-jihadists-kidnap-indian-jesuit-priest

 ----------------------------------------


Pakistani pol says entire nation is united to eradicate terrorism




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/08/pakistani-pol-says-entire-nation-is-united-to-eradicate-terrorism

----------------------------

India: Jihad group targeted Bollywood stars for corrupting the youth




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/04/india-jihad-group-targeted-bollywood-stars-for-corrupting-the-youth

 ----------------------------------------


Muslim rock-and-roller gets death threats, charges of being “un-Islamic”





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/05/muslim-rock-and-roller-gets-death-threats-charges-of-being-un-islamic

----------------------------------------


“Pakistan’s Kim Kardashian” murdered by brother in Islamic honor killing




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/07/pakistans-kim-kardashian-murdered-by-brother-in-islamic-honor-killing

--------------------------------------


Pakistani pop singer begs forgiveness after being accused of blasphemy





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/12/pakistani-pop-singer-begs-forgiveness-after-being-accused-of-blasphemy


-------------------------------------

Four Indian Mujahideen terrorists arrested, had plans to murder Hindu politician




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/03/four-indian-mujahideen-terrorists-arrested-had-plans-to-murder-hindu-politician

 ----------------------------------------


Bangladesh: Muslims vandalize Hindu temple, threaten to bomb it unless Hindus convert to Islam or move to India




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/bangladesh-muslims-vandalize-hindu-temple-threaten-to-bomb-it-unless-hindus-convert-to-islam-or-move-to-india

 ----------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims vandalize Hindu temple






------------------------------------

India: Enraged Muslims demand ban of movie about “how Qur’an has been misinterpreted to give birth to terrorism”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/india-filmmaker-makes-movie-about-how-quran-has-been-misinterpreted-to-give-birth-to-terrorism-enraged-muslims-demand-it-be-banned

 ----------------------------------------

India: Muslim cleric issues fatwa and files police complaint calling for arrest of writer who “hurt the feelings of the Muslim community”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/12/india-muslim-cleric-issues-fatwa-and-files-police-complaint-calling-for-arrest-of-writer-who-hurt-th

 ----------------------------------------


Pakistani army giving weapons, training to Islamic State in Afghanistan




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/02/pakistani-army-giving-weapons-training-to-islamic-state-in-afghanistan

-----------------------------------


Pakistan’s nuclear jihad








-------------------------------------


“All Western countries are enemies of Islam”








-------------------------------------

Saudi police pack two transgender Pakistanis into a sack and beat them to death with sticks




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/03/saudi-police-pack-two-transgender-pakistanis-into-a-sack-and-beat-them-to-death-with-sticks

------------------------------------


‘Tsunami of money’ from Saudi Arabia funding 24,000 madrassas in Pakistan

 



 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/01/tsunami-of-money-from-saudi-arabia-funding-24000-madrassas-in-pakistan


-------------------------------------

Saudi Arabia deports 40,000 Pakistanis over jihad terror fears




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/02/saudi-arabia-deports-40000-pakistanis-over-jihad-terror-fears

----------------------------------


“Islamophobia”: Kuwait imposes visa ban on five Muslim-majority nations, including Pakistan



https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/02/islamophobia-kuwait-imposes-visa-ban-on-five-muslim-majority-nations-including-pakistan


---------------------------------


US judge says convicted jihad murder plotter can’t be deported to Pakistan




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/04/us-judge-says-convicted-jihad-murder-plotter-cant-be-deported-to-pakistan

----------------------------

“I’m disappointed because Hillary Clinton is good for Pakistan and Muslims all over the world”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/11/im-disappointed-because-hillary-clinton-is-good-for-pakistan-and-muslims-all-over-the-world


---------------------------------

Pakistan won’t free jailed doctor who helped U.S. find bin Laden


https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/01/pakistan-wont-free-jailed-doctor-who-helped-u-s-find-bin-laden

-------------------------------

Pakistan: Doctor who helped U.S. find bin Laden tortured in prison





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/12/pakistan-doctor-who-helped-us-find-bin-laden-tortured-in-prison


--------------------------------

Pakistan: Islamic jihadists murder lawyer for doctor who helped CIA find Osama





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/03/pakistan-islamic-jihadists-murder-lawyer-for-doctor-who-helped-cia-find-osama

 ----------------------------------------

9/11 Panel: SA, Pakistan Aided Bin Laden






------------------------------------

Tiny minority of extremists update: 65% Pakistanis support Osama








-------------------------------------

Jihadis murder 18 in massive suicide attack on Karachi’s main anti-terrorist agency







---------------------------------


Indian report says Pakistani intelligence agency tied to Mumbai jihad murders





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/10/indian-report-says-pakistani-intelligence-agency-tied-to-mumbai-jihad-murders

-----------------------------

Islamic suicide bomber who killed six CIA officers was trusted CIA informant





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/01/islamic-suicide-bomber-who-killed-six-cia-officers-was-trusted-cia-informant


---------------------------------------

Pakistani government: U.S. raid that killed Osama was “act of war”





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/07/pakistani-government-raid-that-killed-osama-was-act-of-war

---------------------------------

Pakistan: Hundreds of Muslims rally to pay tribute to Osama bin Laden






--------------------------------

Pakistan PM accused of taking money from bin Laden to fund jihad in Kashmir




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/05/pakistan-pm-accused-of-taking-money-from-bin-laden-to-fund-jihad-in-kashmir

----------------------------


U.S. quietly gives Pakistan $1.6 billion in aid that was suspended after conflict over bin Laden raid and drone strikes

 





--------------------------


U.S. has given Pakistan $26 billion over last 12 years, steps up surveillance of Pakistan




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/09/us-has-given-pakistan-26-billion-over-last-12-years-steps-up-surveillance-of-pakistan

------------------------


U.S. pays $688 million in jizya to Pakistan for “war on terror expenses”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/12/us-pays-688-million-in-jizya-to-pakistan-for-war-on-terror-expenses

------------------------


Official report released in 2007 Pakistani killing of American officer, long kept quiet




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/11/official-report-released-in-2007-pakistani-killing-of-american-officer-long-kept-quiet

------------------------


Genius former CIA analyst says next big jihad terror attack in U.S. will come from Pakistan





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/05/genius-former-cia-analyst-says-next-big-jihad-terror-attack-in-us-will-come-from-pakistan

-------------------------

Jihadists murder three in attack on U.S. consulate in northwest Pakistan






https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/04/jihadists-murder-three-in-attack-on-us-consulate-in-northwest-pakistan


--------------------------

Indian Mujahideen plotted jihad attack in industrial city of Surat: “We wanted to ensure that no Muslim was killed…we knew that the casualty rate would be high”

 



 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/12/indian-mujahideen-plotted-jihad-attack-in-industrial-city-of-surat-we-wanted-to-ensure-that-no-musli

 ----------------------------------------


Obama offered to pressure India over Kashmir if Pakistan stopped supporting jihadis — Pakistan refused

 



 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/11/obama-offered-to-pressure-india-over-kashmir-if-pakistan-stopped-supporting-jihadis-pakistan-refu

 ----------------------------------------


India: Murderous blasts at Hindu politician’s rally “the work of the Indian Mujahideen”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/10/india-murderous-blasts-at-hindu-politicians-rally-the-work-of-the-indian-mujahideen

 ----------------------------------------


India: Islamic jihadists murder five, injure 83 with serial blasts at Hindu politician’s rally




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/10/india-islamic-jihadists-murder-five-injure-83-with-serial-blasts-at-hindu-politicians-rally

 ----------------------------------------


India: 99% of Muslim girls oppose Muslim religious body’s attempt to lower legal marriage age for Muslim girls




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/09/india-99-of-muslim-girls-oppose-muslim-religious-bodys-attempt-to-lower-legal-marriage-age-for-musli

 ----------------------------------------


India: Muslim mob attacks Hindu children with sticks and sharp weapons for singing Indian national song

 



 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/08/india-muslim-mob-attacks-hindu-children-with-sticks-and-sharp-weapons-for-singing-indian-national-so

 ----------------------------------------


India: Muslims strike site holiest to Buddhism with nine serial explosions




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/07/india-muslims-strike-site-holiest-to-buddhism-with-nine-serial-explosions

 ----------------------------------------


India’s Grand Mufti under fire for enjoying concert after issuing fatwa declaring music un-Islamic




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/07/indias-grand-mufti-under-fire-for-enjoying-concert-after-issuing-fatwa-declaring-music-un-islamic

 ----------------------------------------

Afghanistan: Jihad-martyrdom suicide bombers murder nine in botched attack on Indian consulate





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/08/afghanistan-jihad-martyrdom-suicide-bombers-murder-nine-in-botched-attack-on-indian-consulate

 ----------------------------------------


India: Muslims vandalize Hindu temples in West Bengal, government arrests only Hindus




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/05/india-muslims-vandalize-hindu-temples-in-west-bengal-government-arrests-only-hindus

 ----------------------------------------


#MyJihad in India: Muslim mob torches and loots 200 Hindu homes




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/02/myjihad-in-india-muslim-mob-torches-and-loots-200-hindu-homes

 ----------------------------------------


#MyJihad in India: Muslims murder 13, injure 84 with bombs in crowded area of Hyderabad




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/02/myjihad-in-india-muslims-murder-13-injure-84-with-bombs-in-crowded-area-of-hyderabad

 ----------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims waving pistols storm Hindu temple, desecrate idol of Hindu deity




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/02/pakistan-muslims-waving-pistols-storm-hindu-temple-desecrate-idol-of-hindu-deity

--------------------------------


Mumbai jihadists threaten “water jihad” against India





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/04/mumbai-jihadists-threaten-water-jihad-against-india

-------------------------------


#MyJihad in Australia: Muslim leader misunderstands Islam, says, “Army of Muslims…went to China, India, and the Maghreb. That is jihad.”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/01/muslim-leader-misunderstands-islam-says-army-of-muslimswent-to-china-india-and-the-maghreb-that-is-j

 ----------------------------------------


India: Muslim politician arrested after saying Muslims would “finish off one billion Hindus”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/01/india-muslim-politician-arrested-after-saying-muslims-would-finish-off-one-billion-hindus

 ----------------------------------------


India: Muslims hack Hindu man to death for eloping with Muslim woman




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/12/india-muslims-hack-hindu-man-to-death-for-eloping-with-muslim-woman

 ----------------------------------------


Indian Muslim leader says, “Remove police for 15 minutes, we will finish off one billion Hindus”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/12/indian-muslim-leader-says-remove-police-for-15-minutes-we-will-finish-off-one-billion-hindus


 ----------------------------------------


5,000 Hindus flee Pakistan every year due to Muslim persecution





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/05/5000-hindus-flee-pakistan-every-year-due-to-muslim-persecution

---------------------------------------

Pakistan: 1,000 Christian, Hindu girls forced to convert to Islam every year






 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/04/pakistan-1000-christian-hindu-girls-forced-to-convert-to-islam-every-year


---------------------------------


India Set To ‘Detect-Delete-Deport’ 20 Million Illegal Muslims


11/27/2016

Indian officials are registering Bangladeshi residents in the state of Assam in an apparent bid to reduce the Muslim population.
“The Hindu rate of population growth is declining. But the Muslim rate is rising. Most of the Muslims here are from Bangladesh. If this continues, the Assamese Hindus will become a minority soon — we will lose our language, our culture, our identity,” Assam’s finance minister told The Washington Post.

 http://dailycaller.com/2016/11/27/india-sets-up-muslim-registry-to-deport-20-million-illegals/

------------------------------------------

India: Muslim mob attacks Hindus with bricks and stones for passing through “their area,” 24 injured







-------------------------------------------------------

Pakistan: Ad for sewer workers “only for non-Muslims”




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/07/pakistan-ad-for-sewer-workers-only-for-non-muslims

-------------------------------------------------------


Pakistan: Christian arrested for blasphemy for criticizing Muhammad







-----------------------------------------------------

Pakistani sentenced to death for blasphemy on social media


 June 10, 2017

 MULTAN: A minority Shiite Muslim was sentenced to death in Pakistan for sharing blasphemous content about Islam on social media, a government prosecutor said.

http://nation.com.pk/national/10-Jun-2017/pakistani-sentenced-to-death-for-blasphemy-on-social-media


--------------------------------------------------


Christian Father of 2-Year-Old in Pakistan Jailed on Flimsy Blasphemy Charge, Brother Says

Arrested amid government crack-down on online ‘blasphemy.’


 June 18, 2017

LAHORE, Pakistan (Morning Star News) – Amid a government campaign in Pakistan against “blasphemous” content online, a Christian was arrested on Friday (June 16) when a Muslim accused him of blasphemy after a dispute over a repair bill, sources said.

http://morningstarnews.org/2017/06/christian-father-2-year-old-pakistan-jailed-flimsy-blasphemy-charge-brother-says/

------------------------------------------------------

Pakistan: 25,000 supporters of blasphemy law clash with police, set fire to cars





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/03/pakistan-25000-supporters-of-blasphemy-law-clash-with-police-set-fire-to-cars


---------------------------------------------------

UK: Muslim cleric praises killer of foe of Pakistan’s blasphemy laws




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/04/uk-muslim-cleric-praises-killer-of-foe-of-pakistans-blasphemy-laws


----------------------------------------------------


Pakistan shopkeeper gets life term for blasphemy: tore up banner bearing Muhammad’s name and Qur’an verses







-----------------------------------------------

India: Hindu converts to Islam, begins plotting jihad mass murder






----------------------------------------------------


India: Muslims riot, stab 65-year-old Hindu man to death in rage over someone else’s Facebook post








-----------------------------------------------------

India: Muslims threaten to cut off writer’s arm and leg if he doesn’t convert to Islam within 6 months





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/07/india-muslims-threaten-to-cut-off-writers-arm-and-leg-if-he-doesnt-convert-to-islam-within-6-months


----------------------------------------------------


Pakistan: Muslims chop off Christian’s arms after he refuses to convert to Islam






 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/07/pakistan-muslims-chop-off-christians-arms-after-he-refuses-to-convert-to-islam

------------------------------------------------


Jammu and Kashmir: Muslims attack Hindus on pilgrimage, murdering seven








---------------------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslim mob demands death for Christian teen accused of “insulting Islam”






https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/10/pakistan-muslim-mob-demands-death-for-christian-teen-accused-of-insulting-islam

--------------------------------------------------


Pakistan: Christian woman sentenced to death for “blasphemy”





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/11/pakistan-christian-woman-sentenced-to-death-for-blasphemy

---------------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims murder 25, injure 39 in jihad suicide blast targeting police








--------------------------------------------


Pakistan’s ISI funded deadly attack on CIA camp in Afghanistan






 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/04/pakistans-isi-funded-deadly-attack-on-cia-camp-in-afghanistan

--------------------------------------


Jamunamukh (Assam) rape and murder case on school teacher  in Ramadan : 2 Jihadis arrested.


https://hinduexistence.org/2017/06/03/two-ramadan-rape-n-murder-jihadis-arrested-from-hojai-and-nagaon-assam/

--------------------------------------------

Pakistan: mullah blocks feeding of earthquake survivors during Ramadan





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2005/10/pakistan-mullah-blocks-feeding-of-earthquake-survivors-during-ramadan

--------------------------------------------

India: Muslim boys kidnap and murder their 14-year-old Hindu friend




They killed him when their ransom demands were not met. This is all according to Islamic law. Here is a salient passage on this issue from a Shafi’i manual of Islamic law:
When an adult male is taken captive, the caliph considers the interests … (of Islam and the Muslims) and decides between the prisoner’s death, slavery, release without paying anything, or ransoming himself in exchange for money or for a Muslim captive held by the enemy. (Reliance of the Traveller o9.14)






-----------------------------------------------

Gruesome Islamic State video from Afghanistan shows kids executing prisoners




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/06/gruesome-islamic-state-video-from-afghanistan-shows-kids-executing-prisoners


-------------------------------------------------

Al-Qaeda getting more active on the Indian subcontintent




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/07/al-qaeda-getting-more-active-on-the-indian-subcontintent

----------------------------------------------

“Almost no country needs to be more worried about jihadist Islam spreading than India”







----------------------------------------------

Indian PM “snubs” Palestinian leaders; pledges to fight jihad together with Israel




The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, has now become the first Indian Prime Minister to visit Israel, and he won’t be meeting with Palestinian leaders, causing upset among them.

 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/07/indian-pm-snubs-palestinian-leaders-pledges-to-fight-jihad-together-with-israel


-------------------------------

Pakistan jihad terrorists training Rohingya jihadis in Bangladesh

 



https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/10/pakistan-jihad-terrorists-training-rohingya-jihadis-in-bangladesh


-----------------------------

India: Hindu leader says Rohingyas are “threat to national security…have links with jihad”






--------------------------

India using chilli sprays, stun grenades to dissuade Rohingya Muslim refugee influx







--------------------------

India: Global child bride racket uncovered, eight Muslim sheikhs arrested




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/06/indiana-muslims-enraged-by-billboard-telling-truth-about-muhammad

 ----------------------------------------

Pakistan’s Mujahid Battalion kills two Indian soldiers and mutilates their bodies




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/05/pakistans-mujahid-battalion-kills-two-indian-soldiers-and-mutilate-their-bodies

 ----------------------------------------

India: Muslims hack man to death for atheist post on Facebook




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/03/india-muslims-hack-man-to-death-for-atheist-post-on-facebook



-----------------------------------------

Chechnya: 800,000 Muslims protest Muhammad cartoons; protests also in Iran, Pakistan, Ingushetia, elsewhere




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/01/chechnya-800000-muslims-protest-muhammad-cartoons-protests-also-in-iran-pakistan-ingushetia-elsewhere


--------------------------------

Pakistan opposition leader: UN should declare defamation of Muhammad an international crime







--------------------------------

Pakistan: Petition to end YouTube censorship put in place because of Muhammad video




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/09/pakistan-petition-to-end-youtube-censorship-put-in-place-because-of-muhammad-video

-------------------------------

Pakistan: New bounty offer for Muhammad filmmaker — $200,000





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/10/pakistan-new-bounty-offer-for-muhammad-filmmaker-200000

----------------------------


Muslims with clubs and axes attack showing of “Jesus” film in Pakistan







-----------------------------

India: Muslim cleric arrested for smuggling firearms




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/04/india-muslim-cleric-arrested-for-smuggling-firearms

 ----------------------------------------

Pakistani army supporting anti-India jihadist groups




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/02/pakistani-army-supporting-anti-india-jihadist-groups

 ----------------------------------------

India: Muslim group offers $15,000 reward to anyone who beheads Muslim “moderate” Tarek Fatah




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/02/india-muslim-group-offers-15000-reward-to-anyone-who-beheads-muslim-moderate-tarek-fatah

 ----------------------------------------

The History of India: Every Year


May 16, 2016

This video will show the entire history of India from 29th century BCE to 2016. Due to their extreme timescales, the Indus Valley and Vedic periods cannot be shown every year, although every year is shown from 413 BCE.
A note on Kashmir: To maintain neutrality, I've simply shown the lines of actual control. Neither the Indian nor Pakistani claims are recognised outside the area they administer.


Numbered Kingdoms:

1: Western Coastal Plains States
2: Pundravardhana
3: Vangala
4: Khandesh Sultanate
5: Bidar
6: Gingee
7: Tanjore
8: Gingee (Maratha last-stand)
9: Madurai
10: Nawab of Bahawalpur

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QN41DJLQmPk


--------------


Pakistan: Islamists angry at new law against forced conversions


Every year in Pakistan, hundreds of people - mostly Hindus - are forced to convert to Islam. To address this problem, the Sindh province recently passed a bill that criminalises forced religious conversions. But it's been labelled "anti-Islam" by hardline Islamists, who want lawmakers to amend it. Our correspondents in Pakistan report.

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rzWccBKk5eI

------------

Pakistan threatens to DESTROY India with atomic bomb as nuclear enemies edge towards brink

 

 Sep 29, 2016

 

INDIA and Pakistan have edged even closer to full-blown conflict after Pakistan's defence minister threatened to "eliminate" India if it declared war.


http://www.express.co.uk/news/world/715838/Pakistan-threatens-India-nuclear-war-Kashmir-dispute-heightens-tensions

-------------

2001–02 India–Pakistan standoff


The 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff was a military standoff between India and Pakistan that resulted in the massing of troops on either side of the border and along the Line of Control  in the region of Kashmir. This was the second major military standoff between India and Pakistan following the successful detonation of nuclear devices by both countries in 1998 and the most recent standoff between the nuclear rivals. The other had been the Kargil War in 1999.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001%E2%80%9302_India%E2%80%93Pakistan_standoff

---------------


Islamicide: How the Mullah Mafia Is Destroying Pakistan

A boy cuts off his own right hand because it offended God. Pedophilia is holy. To question is to risk execution. Welcome to a nation in thrall to suicidal fanaticism.


http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/02/01/islamicide-how-the-mullah-mafia-is-destroying-pakistan.html


--------------------


India-Pakistan partition 1947


 Dec 18, 2012

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zcKS9JPSfCg

------------------------


Pakistan's War With The Taliban


Sep 23, 2013


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nm1YZWY5R6E

--------------------

Islamic conquest of India. Bloodiest in the history of World

 Mar 30, 2012

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TMY2YV9WucY



-----------------------------


Five sentenced to death in Pakistan for lynching and burning Christian couple in a kiln


 23 November 2016


Illiterate couple were falsely accused of throwing away pages of the Quran.


 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/pakistan-death-sentence-christian-couple-shahzad-masih-shama-bibi-kiln-lynch-a7435156.html


-------------------------

Russia Today Report Pakistan The Next American Enemy


Nov 25, 2016

Russia Today Report Pakistan The Next American Enemy
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ckKonHGnvfA


-------------------------


Blasphemy law in Pakistan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blasphemy_law_in_Pakistan

The Pakistan Penal Code prohibits blasphemy against any recognized religion, providing penalties ranging from a fine to death. From 1987 to 2014 over 1300 people have been accused of blasphemy, Muslims constitute the majority of those booked under these laws.

Over 60 people accused of blasphemy have been murdered before their respective trials were over, and prominent figures who opposed the blasphemy law have been assassinated. Since 1990, 62 people have been murdered as a result of blasphemy allegations.

According to one religious minority source, an accusation of blasphemy commonly subjects the accused, police, lawyers, and judges to harassment, threats, attacks and rioting. Critics complain that Pakistan's blasphemy law "is overwhelmingly being used to persecute religious minorities and settle personal vendettas," but calls for change in the blasphemy laws have been strongly resisted by Islamic parties - most prominently the Barelvi school of Islam.

Pakistan's laws became particularly severe between 1980 and 1986, when a number of clauses were added to the laws by the military government of General Zia-ul Haq, to "Islamicise" the laws and deny the Muslim character of the Ahmadi minority. Prior to 1986, only 14 cases pertaining to blasphemy were reported.

Cases under blasphemy law have also been registered against Muslims who have harassed Non Muslims.

Religious Offences and Punishments

PPC Description Penalty
§ 298 Uttering of any word or making any sound or making any gesture or placing of any object in the sight with the deliberate intention of wounding the religious feelings of any person. 1 years imprisonment, or fine, or both
§ 298A Use of derogatory remarks etc., in respect of holy personages. 1980 3 years imprisonment, or fine, or both
§ 298B (Ahmadi blasphemy law) Misuse of epithets, descriptions and titles etc., reserved for certain holy personages or places, by Ahmadis. 26 April 1984 3 years imprisonment and fine
§ 298C (Ahmadi blasphemy law) Aka Ordinance XX: f a Muslim, or preaching or propagating his faith, or "in any manner whatsoever" outraging the religious feelings of Muslims, or posing himself as a Muslim. 26 April 1984 3 years imprisonment and fine
§ 295 Injuring or defiling places of worship, with intent to insult the religion of any class Up to 2 years imprisonment or fine, or both
§ 295A Deliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious beliefs. 1927 Up to 10 years imprisonment, or fine, or both
§ 295B Defiling, etc., of Quran. 1982 Imprisonment for life
§ 295C Use of derogatory remarks, spoken, written, directly or indirectly, etc. defiles the name of Muhammad (S.A.W). 1986 Mandatory Death and fine (Feb. 1990) Trial must take place in a Court of Session with a Muslim judge presiding.



------------------------


We are still on good terms with many of those in the Hindu religion and culture, this includes the people of India. We wish peace upon the Hindu people. We wish to not confuse these people, with being associated with Islam. Many people do not want radical Islam and Sharia government, to further harm the Hindu and Indian people. Most of the Hindu type songs and dancing that we all love, would be banned under Sharia Law. This is a shame, because I love the ancient Indian culture. Even Islamic extremists try to damage ancient remains of statues, historic temples and ancient history in India and around the world. We must stop the Islamic State from trying to destroy more historic sites around the world.

------------

35 Invaluable Hindu and Buddhist Statues Destroyed in Maldives by Extremist Islamic Group

 

February 23, 2012

 http://www.chakranews.com/invaluable-hindu-amd-buddhist-statues-destroyed-in-maldives-by-extremist-islamic-group/2224

-------------------------

List of massacres in India


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_massacres_in_India

---------------------------

Persecution of Hindus


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persecution_of_Hindus

 ----------------------------------------


Pakistan: Hospital that let Christian die pressuring relatives to drop charges against them by ordering their arrest




These Christians are poor and disadvantaged, and are unlikely to get any help from Pakistani authorities, who share the ideology of the people who let Irfan Masih die.

https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/06/pakistan-hospital-that-let-christian-die-pressuring-relatives-to-drop-charges-against-them-by-ordering-their-arrest


-----------------------------

Pakistan: Christian sewer worker dies after Muslim doctors refuse to treat his “unclean” body





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/06/pakistan-christian-sewer-worker-dies-after-muslim-doctors-refuse-to-treat-his-unclean-body

--------------------------

Pakistan hospital jihad attack kills over 70; should raise questions




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/08/pakistan-hospital-jihad-attack-kills-over-70-should-raise-questions


-------------------------------

Pakistani Taliban launches women’s magazine, urges them to take up jihad






----------------------

Indian shooter Heena Sidhu refuses to wear hijab, withdraws from Airgun competition in Iran




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/11/indian-shooter-heena-sidhu-refuses-to-wear-hijab-withdraws-from-airgun-competition-in-iran

 ----------------------------------------

Pakistan: Jihad against female athletes and literate girls




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/12/pakistan-jihad-against-female-athletes-and-literate-girls

----------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslim jihad gunmen attack polio team, murder policemen







----------------------------------------

India: Muslim tried to join the Islamic State because he wanted sex slaves




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/10/india-muslim-tried-to-join-the-islamic-state-because-he-wanted-sex-slaves

 ----------------------------------------


India: Officials deny permission for Hindu festival for fear of offending Muslims




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/09/india-officials-deny-permission-for-hindu-festival-for-fear-of-offending-muslims

 ----------------------------------------


India: Blogger arrested for criticizing Islam on social media




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/09/india-blogger-arrested-for-criticizing-islam-on-social-media

 ----------------------------------------


India: Muslim groups say the Islamic State is un-Islamic, tool of “enemies of Islam”




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/07/india-muslim-groups-say-the-islamic-state-is-un-islamic-tool-of-enemies-of-islam

 ----------------------------------------


India: Islamic State Muslims planned jihad massacre at police station




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/07/india-islamic-state-muslims-planned-jihad-massacre-at-police-station

 ----------------------------------------


Islamic State threatens attack on India, vows to wipe out Hindus





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/04/islamic-state-threatens-attack-on-india-vows-to-wipe-out-hindus

 ----------------------------------------


India: Gandhi statue defaced with Islamic State slogan and threats




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/01/india-gandhi-statue-defaced-with-islamic-state-slogan-and-threats

 ----------------------------------------



Pakistan: Muslim murders his 18-year-old sister with axe in honor killing





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/05/pakistan-muslim-murders-his-18-year-old-sister-with-axe-in-honor-killing

---------------------------------------


Al-Qaeda leaflet calls for intensifying jihad and establishing caliphate in Bangladesh and eastern India





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/11/al-qaeda-leaflet-calls-for-intensifying-jihad-and-establishing-caliphate-in-bangladesh-and-eastern-india

 ----------------------------------------


Caliphate chic in India: Young Muslims with ISIS t-shirts cause a flutter




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/08/caliphate-chic-in-india-young-muslims-with-isis-t-shirts-cause-a-flutter

 ----------------------------------------


Pakistan: Muslims threaten to kill Christian family for protesting against jihad-martyrdom suicide attacks that murdered 171 at historic church




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/10/pakistan-muslims-threaten-to-kill-christian-family-for-protesting-against-jihad-martyrdom-suicide-at

-------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims tell Christian, “stop building churches or we will kill you”





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/05/pakistan-muslims-tell-christian-stop-building-churches-or-we-will-kill-you

----------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslim group says jihad attack on historic church that murdered 83 was “according to the Sharia”





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/10/pakistan-muslim-group-says-jihad-attack-on-historic-church-that-murdered-83-was-according-to-the-sha

--------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims on motorcycles open fire on Christian school




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/06/pakistans-government-wont-abolish-blasphemy-law-because-it-fears-the-reaction-of-extremists

---------------------------------


Pakistan: death sentences for jihadis in church school attack





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2004/04/pakistan-death-sentences-for-jihadis-in-church-school-attack

--------------------------------


Pakistan: Jihadis murder 22 at school, market





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/04/pakistan-jihadis-murder-22-at-school-market

------------------------------

Pakistan: Jihadists threaten English schools; learning English “prohibited in Islam”






---------------------------------


Taliban blow up two more girls’ schools in Pakistan





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/09/taliban-blow-up-two-more-girls-schools-in-pakistan


-----------------------------

Pakistan: Islamic jihadists murder over 100 people in attack on school





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/12/pakistan-islamic-jihadists-murder-over-100-people-in-attack-on-school

----------------------------


Pakistan: 5 Christians shot to death coming out of church following threats from “banned” jihadist groups





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/07/pakistan-5-christians-shot-coming-out-of-church-following-threats-from-banned-jihadist-groups

------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims seize Christian chapel





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/10/pakistan-muslims-seize-christian-chapel

------------------------------


Muslims building mosque on Christian graveyard in Pakistan





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/09/muslims-building-mosque-on-christian-graveyard-in-pakistan

--------------------------


Pakistani Muslim seizes Christian graveyard, forbids Christian burial there





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/04/pakistani-muslim-seizes-christian-graveyard-forbids-christian-burial-there


--------------------------

Pakistan: Bombing of girls’ school kills policeman, wounds eight







----------------------------


Pakistan: Over sixty masked men wielding iron rods invade girls’ school and beat students and teachers for not dressing “modestly”




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/10/pakistan-over-sixty-masked-men-wielding-iron-rods-invade-girls-school-and-beat-students-and-teachers

--------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims murder 15 Christians, injure 70 with blasts at churches




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/03/pakistan-muslims-murder-15-christians-injure-70-with-blasts-at-churches

-----------------------------

Pakistan: After bombing Christian church, Muslims harvested their organs




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/10/pakistan-after-bombing-christian-church-muslims-harvested-their-organs

--------------------------


Pakistan: Taliban throwing acid in girls’ faces to keep them from going to school




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/11/pakistan-taliban-throwing-acid-in-girls-faces-to-keep-them-from-going-to-school


------------------------


Pakistan: Woman dies from acid burns







-------------------------

Pakistan: 600-strong Muslim mob attacks church





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/10/pakistan-600-strong-muslim-mob-attacks-church

------------------------


Pakistan: 11 Christians, including a pastor, accused of blasphemy





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/12/pakistan-11-christians-including-a-pastor-accused-of-blasphemy

--------------------------


Pakistan: 15 Christians held under blasphemy law




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/09/pakistan-15-christians-held-under-blasphemy-law


--------------------

Pakistan: Lahore High Court upholds death sentence for “blasphemy”





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/10/pakistan-lahore-high-court-upholds-death-sentence-for-blasphemy


--------------------

Pakistan: Christian accused of blasphemy turns himself in to police to avoid being murdered by Muslim mobs





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/11/pakistan-christian-accused-of-blasphemy-turns-himself-in-to-police-to-avoid-being-murdered-by-muslim


-------------------


Pakistan: Muslim mob attacks Christians, authorities arrest…Christians





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/02/pakistan-muslim-mob-attacks-christians-authorities-arrestchristians

--------------------

Pakistan: Santa Claus arrested for blasphemy!




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/12/pakistan-santa-claus-arrested-for-blasphemy


----------------------------------------

Muslim relief organizations discriminating against Christian refugees in Pakistan





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/08/muslim-relief-organizations-discriminating-against-christian-refugees-in-pakistan

--------------------------------------


The allegedly compassionate, the purportedly merciful: Pakistani Taliban threaten attacks on flood aid workers





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/08/the-compassionate-the-merciful-pakistani-taliban-threaten-attacks-on-flood-aid-workers

-----------------------------------


No soup for you, infidel: Pakistani soup kitchen won’t serve Christians





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/07/no-soup-for-you-infidel-punjab-soup-kitchen-wont-serve-christians

-----------------------------------


Blasphemy laws not enough, Pakistan also using alcohol laws to persecute Christians



https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/04/blasphemy-laws-not-enough-pakistan-also-using-alcohol-laws-to-persecute-christians

-------------------------------

Pakistan: Devout Muslim students stone other students for celebrating Valentine’s Day, fire on police, set hostel ablaze





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/pakistan-devout-muslim-students-stone-other-students-for-celebrating-valentines-day-fire-on-police-set-hostel-ablaze

-----------------------------------

India: Muslims bomb food plaza to stop Hindus from eating during Ramadan





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/07/india-muslims-bomb-food-plaza-to-stop-hindus-from-eating-during-ramadan

 ----------------------------------------


Mapped: The world's most polluted countries





 Pakistan's urban areas are, on average, the world's most polluted, followed by Qatar and Afghanistan. Europe's most polluted cities are found in Turkey, Bulgaria and Serbia.

  1. Pakistan - average PM 2.5 concentration: 115.7 [Over a 95% Muslim population.]
  2. Qatar - 92.4   [Over a 65% Muslim population.]
  3. Afghanistan - 86   [Over a 90% Muslim population.]
  4. Bangladesh - 83.3 [Over an 85% Muslim population.]
  5. Egypt - 73   [Over an 80% Muslim population.]
  6. UAE - 64   [Over a 75% Muslim population.]
  7. Mongolia - 61.8
  8. India - 60.6  [Practices forms of hybrid Sharia Law.]
  9. Bahrain - 56.1  [Over a 65% Muslim population.]
  10. Nepal - 50
  11. Ghana - 49
  12. Jordan - 48   [Over a 90% Muslim population.]
  13. China - 41.4
  14. Senegal - 40   [Over a 90% Muslim population.]
  15. Turkey - 39.1   [Over an 80% Muslim population.]
  16. Bulgaria - 38.6
  17. Mauritius - 38.1
  18. Peru - 38
  19. Serbia - 35.8
  20. Iran - 34.2   [Over a 95% Muslim population.]

The 20 countries with the least polluted urban areas

  1. Australia - average PM 2.5 concentration: 5.7
  2. Brunei - 6.6
  3. New Zealand - 6.8
  4. Estonia - 7.2
  5. Finland - 7.3
  6. Canada - 7.5
  7. Iceland - 8.2
  8. Sweden - 8.7
  9. Ireland - 8.8
  10. Liberia - 9.3
  11. Japan - 10
  12. Bhutan - 10
  13. Norway - 10.9
  14. Malta - 12
  15. Portugal - 12.3
  16. Spain - 12.4
  17. United States - 12.9
  18. Monaco - 13
  19. Malaysia - 13.2
  20. Luxembourg - 14

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/maps-and-graphics/most-polluted-countries/


[You will notice that the majority of many Islamic countries on this map, are ranked some of the most polluted countries on the planet. This is a good example of what happens when you let these types of corrupt governments that are used to taking many bribes, to continue to remain in power.]

---------------------------


#MyJihad in Germany: Muslims demand Indian student convert to Islam, beat him and slash his tongue when he refuses




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/12/germany-muslims-demand-indian-student-convert-to-islam-beat-him-and-slash-his-tongue-when-he-refuses

 ----------------------------------------


India: Muslim mob assaults Muslim woman for traveling with Hindu man




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/11/india-muslim-mob-assaults-muslim-woman-for-traveling-with-hindu-man

 ----------------------------------------


Pakistani writers: “There is a mini Boko Haram thriving in every Muslim society”





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/05/pakistani-writers-there-is-a-mini-boko-haram-thriving-in-every-muslim-society

------------------------------------


Pakistan Taliban: “India is our domain, and we will attack to take possession of it…whether they are Hindus or Jews, they all are the same”






------------------------------------


India: Muslims strip and beat convert to Christianity, disrupt prayer meeting and threaten to burn down her home




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/08/india-muslims-strip-and-beat-convert-to-christianity-disrupt-prayer-meeting-and-threaten-to-burn-dow

----------------------------------------

Pakistan: School textbooks teach that it’s okay for Muslims to kill Christians




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/10/pakistan-school-textbooks-teach-that-its-okay-for-muslims-to-kill-christians

------------------------------------

Pakistan: Islamic school outraged over being designated “terrorist training center” by U.S.






----------------------------

Mumbai: 20 dead, 81 wounded in bombings in India’s financial center




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/07/mumbai-three-killed-many-wounded-in-bombings-in-indias-financial-center

---------------------------------------


Jihad/martyrdom bomber kills 14 in Pakistan





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/01/jihadmartyrdom-bomber-kills-14-in-pakistan


-----------------------------


Pakistan: Islamic jihadists murder seven in three separate blasts





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/05/pakistan-islamic-jihadists-murder-seven-in-three-separate-blasts

-----------------------------

India: Terror attack wounds 20 at Hindu temple, AP scratches head and wonders who could be responsible


7:04

 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/12/india-terror-attack-wounds-20-at-hindu-temple-ap-scratches-head-and-wonders-who-could-be-responsible

-----------------------------------------


Pakistan: Jihadists murder 19 with bomb on bus carrying government officials





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/09/pakistan-jihadists-murder-19-with-bomb-on-bus-carrying-government-officials

------------------------------


Pakistan: Sikh murdered for refusing to pay the jizya





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/01/pakistan-sikh-murdered-for-refusing-to-pay-the-jizya

---------------------------------------

Pakistan: Call to remove Senator from Parliament for incorrectly reciting Qur’an verse




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/09/pakistan-call-to-remove-senator-from-parliament-for-incorrectly-reciting-quran-verse

--------------------------------------



Sunni/Shiite Jihad: Two Blasts Kill at Least 39 in Pakistan







---------------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslims murder 15 with jihad attack at polio vaccination center




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/01/pakistan-muslims-murder-15-with-jihad-attack-at-polio-vaccination-center

---------------------------------

Pakistan: 11 teachers administering polio vaccine are abducted




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/11/pakistan-11-teachers-administering-polio-vaccine-are-abducted


-----------------------------


Polio virus strain in Syria confirmed as being from Pakistan





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/11/polio-virus-strain-in-syria-confirmed-as-being-from-pakistan


-------------------------------

Pakistan: Islamic jihadists murder 21 with bomb in Islamabad market





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/04/pakistan-islamic-jihadists-murder-21-with-bomb-in-islamabad-market


-----------------------------------

India: Muslims attack Hindu procession, injuring 50


September 23, 2010

https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/09/india-muslims-attack-hindu-procession-injuring-50

 ----------------------------------------



India: Muslim mobs loot and ransack Hindu shops and Hindu temples, beat up Hindus, torch public buses





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/09/india-muslim-mobs-loot-and-ransack-hindu-shops-and-hindu-temples-beat-up-hindus-torch-public-buse

----------------------------------------

“No Compulsion In Religion”: 57 Pakistani Hindus convert to Islam under pressure





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/06/no-compulsion-in-religion-57-pakistani-hindus-convert-to-islam-under-pressure

--------------------------------------

Taliban attempt to erase Pakistan’s Buddhist heritage





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2009/11/taliban-attempt-to-erase-pakistans-buddhist-heritage

-----------------------------------------

Taliban trying to destroy Buddhist art





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2009/11/taliban-trying-to-destroy-buddhist-art

-----------------------------------------


Pakistan: Taliban behead 3 Sikhs for refusing to convert to Islam





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/02/pakistan-taliban-behead-3-sikhs-for-refusing-to-convert-to-islam

-----------------------------------------

India: Eight killed, 40 wounded in bombing near synagogue




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/02/india-eight-killed-40-wounded-in-bombing-near-synagogue

 ----------------------------------------

Pakistan: In police station, Muslim teen murders Ahmadi accused of blasphemy






----------------------------------------


Pakistan: Police torture to death innocent Christian; Christians “usually treated worse by police”





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/pakistan-police-torture-to-death-innocent-christian-christians-usually-treated-worse-by-police

-------------------------------------


Pakistan: Muslims involved in murder of 10 Christians, burning of churches acquitted




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/06/pakistan-muslims-involved-in-murder-of-10-christians-burning-of-churches-acquitted

---------------------------------


Pakistani imam who framed Christian girl on blasphemy charges acquitted




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/08/pakistani-imam-who-framed-christian-girl-on-blasphemy-charges-acquitted

------------------------------

Pakistan: Muslim mob brutally beats three Christian women and parades them naked through village; investigation ordered over a month later




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/07/pakistan-muslim-mob-brutally-beats-three-christian-women-and-parades-them-naked-through-village-inve

-----------------

Five Christians murdered in a week under Pakistan’s blasphemy law





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/12/five-christians-murdered-in-a-week-under-pakistans-blasphemy-law

-----------------

Pakistan: Islamic jihadists bomb police bus, murdering 13 and wounding 47




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/pakistan-islamic-jihadists-bomb-police-bus-murdering-13-and-wounding-47


-------------------------------


Pakistan: Jihadists dressed in burqas murder 41 in double jihad/martyrdom bombing





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/04/pakistan-jihadists-dressed-in-burqas-murder-41-in-double-jihadmartyrdom-bombing

------------------------------


Pakistan: Jihadist bombings kill 45 in Lahore





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/03/pakistan-jihadist-bombings-kill-45-in-lahore


-----------------------------

Pakistan: Two jihad/martyrdom bombers murder fifteen, wound 25 — one was hiding in mosque before attack





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/02/pakistan-two-jihadmartyrdom-bombers-murder-fifteen-wound-25-one-was-hiding-in-mosque-before-attac

----------------------------

Jihadists kill 63, wound 190 with bombs in Pakistan







-----------------------------

Taliban welcomes Hillary Clinton to Pakistan with car bomb that kills 90








-----------------------------


Pakistan: Islamic jihadists murder four with bomb in residential area




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/04/pakistan-islamic-jihadists-murder-four-with-bomb-in-residential-area

-----------------------------

Pakistan: Jihad-martyrdom suicide bomber murders 29 at funeral of policeman





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/08/pakistan-jihad-martyrdom-suicide-bomber-murders-29-at-funeral-of-policeman

----------------------------

Pakistan: Islamic jihadists throw grenades into crowded movie theatre, murdering eleven people





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/pakistan-islamic-jihadists-throw-grenades-into-crowded-movie-theatre-murdering-eleven-people


----------------------------



Pakistan: Sunni Muslims toss grenades into Ismaili Shia mosques, killing two people and wounding 30





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/08/pakistan-sunni-muslims-toss-grenades-into-ismaili-shia-mosques-killing-two-people-and-wounding-30

-----------------------

Pakistan: Jihad-martyrdom suicide attacker murders 12




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/05/pakistan-jihad-martyrdom-suicide-attacker-murders-12


-----------------------

Pakistan: Islamic jihadists murder 33 people with car bomb in market





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/09/pakistan-islamic-jihadists-murder-33-people-with-car-bomb-in-market

------------------------


Pakistan: Misunderstanders of Islam murder 50 in twin jihad/martyrdom attacks







-------------------

Mosque shootout: 18 injured over who should lead prayers







---------------------

San Bernardino jihad murderer linked to jihadi mosque in Pakistan




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/12/san-bernardino-jihad-murderer-linked-to-jihadi-mosque-in-pakistan


----------------------------

Pakistan-based jihadist group claims responsibility for attacks in China that killed over 3 dozen





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/09/pakistan-based-jihadist-group-claims-responsibility-for-attacks-in-china-that-killed-over-3-dozen

---------------------------


Pakistan: Islamic jihadists murder soldier with bomb hidden in Qur’an




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/02/pakistan-islamic-jihadists-murder-soldier-with-bomb-hidden-in-quran

-------------------------------------------

Indian politician: Hindus, Christians must unite to fight jihad





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2005/09/indian-politician-hindus-christians-must-unite-to-fight-jihad

 ----------------------------------------

Pakistan continues to aid terrorist camps: India







 ----------------------------------------


It's time to confront this taboo: First cousin marriages in Muslim communities are putting hundreds of children at risk




http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1394119/Its-time-confront-taboo-First-cousin-marriages-Muslim-communities-putting-hundreds-children-risk.html


----------------------------------------



First cousin marriages in Pakistani communities leading to 'appalling' disabilities among children

 

 July 2015

Baroness Flather, a cross-bench peer, says it is 'absolutely appalling' that first cousin marriages in Pakistani communities are leading to 'so much disability among children'

Couples who are getting married should be forced to have a DNA test first to ensure they are not cousins amid growing concern about incest within Pakistani communities, Britain's first Asian peer has claimed.
Baroness Flather, a former Tory who now sits as a cross-bencher, said in the House of Lords that it is "absolutely appalling" that first cousin marriages in Pakistani communities are leading to "so much disability among children".
She said: "There are a lot of first-cousin marriages in certain communities, particularly among Pakistanis who come from the Pakistani Kashmir area. We know so much about DNA now, but there is so much disability among the children, which is absolutely appalling.

 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/children/11723308/First-cousin-marriages-in-Pakistani-communities-leading-to-appalling-disabilities-among-children.html

 ---------------------------------------


Cousin Marriage in Islam


 This article discusses cousin marriage in Islam, and the health-risks involved in such practices.

Scripture

Due to the actions of Prophet Muhammad and the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, marriage between cousins is explicitly allowed and even encouraged in Islam. The Qur'an itself does not discourage or forbid this practice in any way. In fact it implicitly allows it, as seen in chapter 4 verse 23:

History

 

Muhammad

Prophet Muhammad himself married cousins, as he did with Zaynab bint Jahsh, who was not only the daughter of Umaimah bint Abd al-Muttalib, one of his father's sisters, but was also divorced from a marriage with Muhammad's adopted son, Zayd ibn Haritha. It was this last issue that caused the most controversy, with traditional Arab norms at the time being opposed, though not the Qur'an (Sura Al-Ahzab 33:37).
According to Ibn Sa'd, after Zaynab's marriage to his adopted son Zayd, Muhammad went to visit him, but instead found a hastily clad Zaynab. Though he did not enter the house, the sight of her pleased him. Tabari states that Zaynab was only wearing a single slip, and the wind pushed away a curtain when Muhammad entered, revealing her "uncovered." Thereafter Zayd no longer found her attractive and thought of proposing divorce, but Muhammad told him to keep her. Eventually, however, Zayd did divorce her.

Ali

Muhammad also allowed the marriage of his daughter, Fatimah, to his cousin, Ali ibn Abi Talib, who would later go on to become the fourth Rightly-guided Caliph of Islam.

Umar

The second Caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab, also married his cousin, Atikah bint Zayd ibn Amr ibn Nufayl.


 https://wikiislam.net/wiki/Cousin_Marriage_in_Islam


----------------------------------------

Pakistan: what is the average IQ?

 Avg. IQ: 84

 https://iq-research.info/en/page/average-iq-by-country/pk-pakistan


---------------------------------------

Iran: what is the average IQ?


 Avg. IQ: 84

https://iq-research.info/en/page/average-iq-by-country/ir-iran

---------------------------------------

"Low IQ" is the New Muslim Terrorist Defense

 

How do you convict a Pakistani terrorist of anything?


 http://www.frontpagemag.com/point/250925/low-iq-new-muslim-terrorist-defense-daniel-greenfield

------------------------------------------


So the immigrants that have been flooding into the UK really are low IQ


 https://www.econjobrumors.com/topic/so-the-immigrants-that-have-been-flooding-into-the-uk-really-are-low-iq


-----------------------------------------

 Pakistan low IQ

 https://www.google.com/search?q=pakistan+low+iq&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwig2r_Ts9zWAhVF2IMKHfQmBrQQ7xYIJSgA&biw=1252&bih=604

--------------------------------------

 Why should we even let countries such as Pakistan, to even be allowed to have nuclear weapons. This is not right, we are going to have to pull the plug on the Pakistani and Iranian nuclear weapons programs.

We need to stop any type of Iranian nuclear deal, and shutdown the Islamic government of Iran.

--------------------------------------


We want humanity to live in peace, and to create life in other parts of space and the Universe. We can see that many religious radicals do not want humanity to live in peace, and constantly threaten war. We do not want to get in a nuclear war, because of the pollution that it will cause to the planet.

 How did the free world ever allow Islamic Sharia governments to have nuclear weapons? It seems that different intelligence agencies are trying to assist with helping these Islamic terrorist governments and militias. Most of the governments of the EU have been behind with helping in  attempting to destabilize countries in Europe, by bringing in Islamic terrorists into Europe, when Europe is already overpopulated. This goes to show a lack of respect for resources, the environment and for the native people of Europe. We need to stop the genocide going on in Europe and India, by many of these Islamic militias.


To be honest, the world would be better off if we didn't have these governments under Sharia Law, manufacturing more nuclear weapons as we speak. It would have been much easier and worth it, to have stopped Pakistan and Iran from manufacturing nuclear weapons over 10 years ago. I am a big environmentalist, and to call for an all out world war in order to possibly stop an even worse world war in the future, would seem to be a risky idea to many. Should we stand around and let Pakistan and Iran manufacture more nuclear weapons. Many people have talked about a worldwide shutdown of nuclear arsenals for all countries. We can see that most likely some countries would still want to manufacture nuclear or thermobaric weapons, even if we had a worldwide ban. We can see that countries who were told to give up their nuclear weapons programs, also were overthrown by countries that have nuclear weapons.

We are giving the green light for the removal of the Islamic government in Pakistan and Iran, including all Islamic militants supporting these corrupt governments. We must stop Pakistan from obtaining more nuclear bombs to give to other radicalized Islamic governments. Pakistan is currently as equal or greater of a threat as North Korea. Strategically, we would be better off removing the Islamic Sharia government of Pakistan, before invading North Korea, or stopping the nuclear weapons programs of Pakistan, Iran and North Korea simultaneously. 


For more information on why we need to abolish Islamic Sharia law and governments around the globe, view our article titled Islamic Sharia Law & Genocide - The Middle East Conflict Investigation - ( IslamicShariaGenocide.Blogspot.com .)

Many other Islamic governments will soon all be able to obtain nuclear weapons, and we are better off dismantling these radicalized religious governments that continue to obtain more nuclear weapons. These radical Islamic governments now threaten to nuke non Islamic governments and other nations. We need to shutdown their nuclear weapons manufacturing immediately, before they manufacture and trade more nuclear weapons to terrorist that want to use nuclear weapons to harm people. If we continue to allow Pakistan and Iran to manufacture nuclear weapons many years down the road, religious radicals would use these destructive nuclear weapons against free nations.


------------------------------

Islam by country


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_by_country

--------------------------------


We do not like the Islamic government of Pakistan, and think that these Islamic governments continue to set a bad example to the world, of how humankind should act. We are for banning all Islamic Sharia governments across the globe. We should have one nation where Muslims can have their own government. However, no Islamic country should be given nuclear weapons. We can dismantle these nuclear weapons programs and we would block any nuclear missiles from harming other parts of the world.


----------------------------------------

 We can see how India and China both have several times more people than any other country in the world, and they both happen to have the worst rates of pollution.

Can the environment of India really sustain over 1.3 billion people?

We can see the rate many endangered animals are dying and being poached, just so some starving person can make some quick money. The people have asked and protested thousands of times against deforestation and many endangered animals around the globe being illegally poached. We do not see an improvement for many of these natural habitats, and only see this problem getting worse.


----------------------------------------


Year-by-Year World Population Estimates: 10,000 B.C. to 2007 A.D


http://www.scottmanning.com/content/year-by-year-world-population-estimates/


 ----------------------------------------

It seems that for most of the history of humans on the planet, the global human population has been under 1 billion people, until around 300 years ago. The human population has expanded by around 6 billion people, in around 300 years. We are not for trying to genocide or murder humanity, and believe that we need to expand the human race and colonize space. It seems selfish how the people of many Islamic countries, including Pakistan and Iran, continue to threaten other nations with terrorism and nuclear war. This is happening while many people say the powers that be want to start a world war, in order to eliminate most of the planets population, in order to control humanity.

-----------------------------------------


Carved in Stone: “Maintain Humanity Under 500,000,000”–yep, they want us dead


https://prof77.wordpress.com/2011/10/01/carved-in-stone-maintain-humanity-under-500000000-yep-they-want-us-dead/

-----------------------------

List of countries by population


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_population_(United_Nations)

-----------------------------------------


Lists of mammals by population


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_mammals_by_population

--------------------

Lists of organisms by population


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_organisms_by_population

--------------------


Along With Humans, Who Else Is In The 7 Billion Club?


November 3, 2011


 http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2011/11/03/141946751/along-with-humans-who-else-is-in-the-7-billion-club

---------------------



We can see a sharp increase in the human population, over a course of a short amount of time on this planet. We can see how some people in the world have over a dozen children. Many recent religions in the past couple thousand years, have also told people to reproduce as much as they want, which has contributed in a giant spike in the population.

Some people demonize a one child policy, and say that it goes against expanding life.
I believe we should expand the human race in space, where we could have billions if not trillions of more people living in space and on other planets.

Do you think that India and China should be able to keep expanding their population on Earth, while being continued to be allowed to pollute at the rate they are?

Look at the amount of pesticides, petrochemicals and plastics the average person now consumes in this world. We cannot keep going at the rate of pollution, such as the rate of pollution in India and China currently.

Would there be a way to live environmentally friendly, with over 7 billion people on this planet?
 If you have billions of people living in areas where the majority of the country is urbanized and many animals are becoming endangered, this can cause an ecosystem imbalance. Many oceans are being over-fished, and many forests and natural lands are being graded for non-organic farms.

We have not seen an improvement of many of the waterways in India. We predict that this situation will become much worse in the future, if we do not take steps to stop this environmental harm.

If I were in charge about the pollution situation in India, what would I do.
I would ban all pesticides for starters, and make people use natural farming methods to stop pests and superbugs.

We would have to make environmentally friendly fibers that can replace toxic chemicals found in  plastic.

We would have to have people who would want to all help out, but it seems that people are still going to trash the environment and illegally dump chemicals, this includes wanting to poach animals to earn an extra dollar on the side. What if there were a way to regulate and introduce  the amount of animals that are in the wild, to where people could still hunt, and animals would not be endangered. We believe that we should ban many of these chemicals and pesticides being manufactured and dumped in India, in order to save the environment at the current rate of hazardous chemicals and pesticides being introduced into India.

We would recommend using a system of aquaponics for farming as often as possible. We are for using organic and sustainable methods of farming, without harmful GMOs or pesticides.

 Click the links for information on the difference between these different types of farming methods.


Hydroponics   -   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroponics

Aquaponics   -   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaponics

Aeroponics   -   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeroponics

Organic farming   -   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_farming


 -----------------------------------------


We like people to have freedom and to live off the land on their farms, we are not for trying to imprison or harm humanity.

We also do not want to get rid of any cultures or bloodlines of any people, and think now is the time we must explore space together in peace, and expand all races into outer space.

--------------------------------------



Ten years ago I would have mentioned how I think if we all lived more environmentally friendly and organically, that the Earth might be able to sustain the current population. However, I mentioned there were too many variables to say how many people can live in the world, without harming the planet too much.

When we see many places such as India, China and many giant megacities, I do not see how I can call for having more people on planet Earth, with the current rate of pesticides, chemicals, and plastic the average person generates in their life. This would also include the amount of land and forests that are now being used for non-organic farms.

I believe now that the planet would be better off with under 1-2 billion people, until we figure out a more environmentally friendly way of living for the planet. The population of humanity on the planet has been under 1 billion people, until 300-400 years ago. We had under 600 million people during Biblical times, and now we have over 7 billion people living in the world. Some say that the world can repair itself, and balance the atmosphere if more organisms are introduced on the planet. We must be cautious of "generation Monsanto," and how many governments, corporations and individuals exploit resources to gain power, while harming the environment.

Some people think that it is evil to call for a reduction in the population, and that we should expand and create more life on Earth.

I think humans were meant to expand and create life off of the planet Earth as well. I think that the world can only hold so many people and animals, to where you will eventually have an imbalance in your water and oxygen cycles with the current rate of harmful pesticides, plastic particles, chemicals and pollution being introduced on this planet. We can even see why certain species of animals are endangered, we can see how other species of animals are overpopulated, including overpopulated invasive species of animals and plants as well.

I believe that the people are not living a natural way of life as they should. I believe countries such as India and China are overpopulated.

Some question what we should do about overpopulation in certain areas of the planet, while other areas of the planet almost have no people living, such as in the Arctic regions.

Some people have mentioned a 1 child policy, while other claim a 1 child policy limits certain freedoms and rights. I honestly would love to have many children myself, and would feel some restrictions if I were to only have 1 child. It is nice to have multiple children to ensure that your bloodline lives on, and that if an accident were to happen to one child, you could have a few more to pass on your bloodline.

Others have mentioned how certain governments want to stage a world war, in order to depopulate the planet.

Some people may think that I am wrong, and that the planet can easily hold a few billion more people than there currently are on the planet, but still question the amount of chemicals and pollution in our waters and air. Some people claim that if we have so many people living on the planet, that we should regulate the amount of oxygen and carbon in the atmosphere, this is known as terraforming the planet. Many people are against terraforming the planet, while others claim that eventually our atmosphere could change, and that we must decide if we should regulate our atmosphere on Earth.

Let us step back and imagine if the whole world was as populated as the areas of China and India around the planet. We can see the problems with many years of introducing so many pesticides, including chemicals, while slowly changing the chemical composition and PH level of the water, and creating harmful toxic air. Imagine if we had over 20 billion people on this planet, at the current rate of pesticides, plastics and chemicals being used. There is no way we would approve of having such a concentrated population in such a small area, releasing so many harmful chemicals. We can even see how countries such as Japan have become highly urbanized, and that many native species of animals and plants are now extinct. We see a pattern of how the more urbanized certain areas of the world become, is when they also start to lose many natural habitats and species of animals.

We could be living more environmentally friendly and help the planet, instead of endangering the planet.
If we had people living organically, and were not illegally dumping plastics and chemicals into the wild, while having proper disposal of waste, this would be a good step for starters.

-------------------------------------


New Pakistan Taliban top dog made radio broadcasts demanding the imposition of Islamic law





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/11/new-pakistan-taliban-top-dog-made-radio-broadcasts-demanding-the-imposition-of-islamic-law


-------------------------------------


“They are enemies of the religion of God. They are apostates”: Pakistani Taliban line up and execute security forces







--------------------------

Indian report says Pakistani intelligence agency tied to Mumbai jihad murders






---------------------------------

Hundreds of Afghan jihadists, some in military uniform, stage cross-border raid into Pakistan





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/06/hundreds-of-afghan-jihadists-some-in-military-uniform-stage-cross-border-raid-into-pakistan

--------------------------------------

Karzai heads to Pakistan to seek release of key Taliban prisoners





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/08/karzai-heads-to-pakistan-to-seek-release-of-key-taliban-prisoners

------------------------------------

Pakistan frees Taliban jihadis, expects U.S. to release more Taliban members from Gitmo




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/11/pakistan-frees-taliban-jihadis-expects-us-to-release-more-taliban-from-gitmo

-----------------------------------


Spencer: Obama Befriends Pakistani Jihadists





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/04/spencer-obama-befriends-pakistani-jihadists

------------------------------------


Yet another former Gitmo inmate returns to the jihad




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/07/yet-another-former-gitmo-inmate-returns-to-the-jihad

------------------------------------

Pentagon: Attacks on eastern Afghan border up due to safe havens in Pakistan









------------------------------

Report: Pakistanis caught tipping off jihadists on planned raids a second time




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/06/report-pakistanis-caught-tipping-off-jihadists-on-planned-raids-a-second-time


-----------------------------------


Pakistan Taliban sets up base in Syria to monitor “the needs of the jihad”




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/07/pakistan-taliban-sets-up-base-in-syria-to-monitor-the-needs-of-the-jihad

--------------------------------


“Moderate” “Palestinian” official: “I swear that if we had a nuke, we’d have used it this very morning”





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/05/palestinian-official-i-swear-that-if-we-had-a-nuke-wed-have-used-it-this-very-morning


-----------------------------------

Pakistan detains four army majors for membership in Hizb ut-Tahrir






-------------------------------------


Pakistan: Violent attacks on religious minorities increased in 2009, government did nothing


March 26, 2010


 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2010/03/pakistan-violent-attacks-on-religious-minorities-increased-in-2009-government-did-nothing

-----------------------------


“The world needs to take cognizance of the genocide that is slowly taking place in Pakistan”





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2013/10/the-world-needs-to-take-cognizance-of-the-genocide-that-is-slowly-taking-place-in-pakistan


-----------------------------------



No kidding: Report says Pakistan’s government failing to protect religious minorities


12:41


 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/06/no-kidding-report-says-pakistans-government-failing-to-protect-religious-minorities

--------------------------------


NATO forces kill 35 Pakistani Taliban inside Afghanistan




 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2011/07/nato-forces-kill-35-pakistani-taliban-inside-afghanistan

------------------------------

Agents nab Pakistani Muslims with jihad terror connections crossing U.S. border




https://www.jihadwatch.org/2015/12/agents-nab-pakistani-muslims-with-jihad-terror-connections-crossing-u-s-border

----------------------------------------


Travel Ban Now Enforceable, Not A Muslim Ban

Supreme Court rules in favor of Trump


Infowars.com - June 27, 2017


https://www.infowars.com/travel-ban-now-enforceable-not-a-muslim-ban/

 ----------------------



Pres. Trump, Pardon Sheriff Joe: “Guilty” Of Defying Sanctuary Judge

AG Sessions should have stopped the prosecution

 

Infowars.com - August 2, 2017

https://www.infowars.com/pres-trump-pardon-sheriff-joe-guilty-of-defying-sanctuary-judge/


--------------------


Trump Vs Deep State – Afghan Pull Out Rumored After Trump Stops Arming ISIS

 

Trump could end the longest U.S. war of all time

 

Aug 2, 2017 

 

Trump shut down the CIA’s arming of ISIS and now there are reports he’s pushing back against the Military Industrial Complex that wants to stay in Afghanistan forever, already the longest war in US history.

 https://www.infowars.com/trump-vs-deep-state-afghan-pull-out-rumored-after-trump-stops-arming-isis/

--------------------------------

Trump Admin Withholds $50 Million From Pakistan Over Failure to Combat Terror

 

“[Mattis] could not certify that Pakistan has taken sufficient action against the Haqqani Network,” Pentagon spokesman says

 

July 21, 2017


https://www.infowars.com/trump-admin-withholds-50-million-from-pakistan-over-failure-to-combat-terror/

------------------------------



Muslim Village In India Loves Donald Trump

 

Contrary to the MSM’s narrative, not all Muslims hate Trump

 

The Alex Jones Show - July 24, 2017

https://www.infowars.com/muslim-village-in-india-loves-donald-trump/


------------------------------------------------- 


Murdoch’s Wall Street Journal Tries to Take Over Trump White House for McMaster, Globalists

 

The paper of choice for Republican globalists hopes that there is more “clean-up duty to be done” for new White House Chief of Staff John Kelly

 
Breitbart - August 10, 2017


https://www.infowars.com/murdochs-wall-street-journal-tries-to-take-over-trump-white-house-for-mcmaster-globalists/ 


-------------------------------------


Ex-British PM says international donors will give Pakistan $1 billion in education aid





https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/03/ex-british-pm-says-international-donors-will-give-pakistan-1-billion-in-education-aid

-----------------------------------

Pakistan: Jihad car bomb murders 15 during British PM Cameron’s visit







------------------------------------



UK: Islamic school spent £1m of public money on school in Pakistan





 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/12/uk-islamic-school-spent-1m-of-public-money-on-school-in-pakistan


----------------------------------




Law of India


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_India#Muslim_law


Law of India refers to the system of law in modern India. India maintains a hybrid legal system with a mixture of civil, common law and customary or religious law within the legal framework inherited from the colonial era and various legislation first introduced by the British are still in effect in modified forms today. Since the drafting of the Indian Constitution, Indian laws also adhere to the United Nations guidelines on human rights law and the environmental law. Certain international trade laws, such as those on intellectual property, are also enforced in India.
Indian personal law is fairly complex, with each religion adhering to its own specific laws. In most states, registering of marriages and divorces is not compulsory. Separate laws govern Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and followers of other religions. The exception to this rule is in the state of Goa, where a uniform civil code is in place, in which all religions have a common law regarding marriages, divorces, and adoption.
As of January 2017, there were about 1,248 laws. However, since there are Central laws as well as State laws, it is difficult to ascertain their exact numbers as on a given date and the best way to find the Central Laws in India is from the official website.

Muslim law

Indian Muslims' personal laws are based upon the Sharia, which is thus partially applied in India, and laws and legal judgements adapting and adjusting Sharia for Indian society. The portion of the fiqh applicable to Indian Muslims as personal law is termed Mohammedan law. Despite being largely uncodified, Mohammedan law has the same legal status as other codified statutes. The development of the law is largely on the basis of judicial precedent, which in recent times has been subject to review by the courts. The concept of the judicial precedent and of 'review by the courts' is a key component of the British common law upon which Indian law is based. The contribution of Justice V.R. Krishna Iyer in the matter of interpretation of the statutory as well as personal law is significant.
The source of Muslim law is divided into two categories: (1) Primary Source, (2) Secondary Source
1. "Primary Source"
As per Sunni Law:
  • Quran
  • Sunna or Ahdis (Tradition of the Prophet)
  • Ijma (Unanimous Decision of the Jurists)
  • Qiyas ( Analogical deduction)
As per Shia Law:
Usooli Shia
  • Quran
  • Tradition (only those that have come from the family of the Prophet)
  • Ijma (only those confirmed by Imams)
  • Reasons
Akhbari Shia
  • Quran
  • Tradition (only those that have come from the family of the Prophet)
2. "Secondary Source"
  • Custom
  • Judicial Decisions
  • Legislation
Polygamy and triple talaq is a subject of debate from long time. It has been abolished in many Islamic countries, but still holds its legal validity in the secular country of India. Supreme court asked the central government for its views, to which it replied that polygamy should be done away with.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_India#Muslim_law


--------------------------------



------------------------------------------------------------


--------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------

 Chapter 5: History

-----------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------


-----------------------------------------------------------------




India has a great list of history with some really great people as well. We should not let India fall under Sharia Law. 

--------------------------


Why do North Indians Look Different from South Indians? The Genetics of South Asia

  
 May 21, 2017

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2Qcca8xkE


---------------------------


Indo-Aryan peoples


Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages. There are over one billion native speakers of Indo-Aryan languages, most of them native to South Asia, where they form the majority

List of Indo-Aryan peoples

Historical

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Aryan_peoples

---------------------------



Worldwide Distribution of a Gene for Fair Skin

  November 11, 2013

Red dots correspond to locations where researchers took samples from people for gene analysis.
Maps by Chandana Basu Mallick et al., PLOS Genetics
Cover Girl, Maybelline, are you listening? A new study of skin color in South Asians finds they have enormous diversity, with a color range that's three times larger than that for East Asians or Europeans. Pretty cool. Another cool bit of trivia: The gene that makes some South Asians fairer is the same gene that makes Europeans fairer than most of the world. Fair East Asians, on the other hand, owe their color to a different gene.

 https://www.popsci.com/article/science/how-gene-fair-skin-spread-across-india

-------------------------


Is Gandhi style protesting how you defeat the elite? Some people accuse Gandhi of working for the British intelligence agencies, in order to make people passive, and to accept the takeover of their culture. Many people even joke about how Gandhi was the person who let his people be overthrown by a corrupt imperial government. The people of India could have easily overthrown this corrupt government, just as the Americans had the war of 1776. India never had a 1776 against the British Crown. Past history shows how India has been reconquered many times, India was an area where multiracial people and tribes lived. India was even separated from the main landmass of Eurasia at one point in time.

What would Gandhi do today against the Islamic Sharia governments trying to attack India?


----------------------------

Gandhi was a British agent who did great harm to India, claims top judge


  MAR 2015

Mahatma Gandhi was a British agent, a retired top Indian judge has claimed.
Justice Markandey Katju, 68, accused the man revered for winning India independence of dividing Muslims and Hindus and paving the way to Pakistan’s creation.

“By injecting religion into politics Gandhi furthered British divide and rule.”

http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/gandhi-british-agent-who-great-5316551

---------------------


We are for the people of India to keep their identity and nationalism. We are for all people and countries to prosper and live in peace.



--------------------

List of Indian monarchs

Emperors of India (1857–1947)


Dominion of India (1947–1950)


Dominion of Pakistan (1947–1956)




--------------------


Commonwealth of Nations




 Member states of the Commonwealth

The Commonwealth of Nations (formerly the British Commonwealth), also known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 52 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire. The Commonwealth operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states, organised through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organisations, organised through the Commonwealth Foundation.
The Commonwealth dates back to the mid-20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which established the member states as "free and equal". The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II who is the Head of the Commonwealth, but this role does not carry any power with it. While there are over 31 republics and five monarchies who have a different monarch, the Queen is the ceremonial head of state and reigning constitutional monarch of 16 members of the Commonwealth, known as Commonwealth realms but retains a crown legally distinct from the other realms with the position as monarch being separate from that of Head of the Commonwealth.


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations

-------------------------------------------


Monarchy of Canada

 

  The Monarchy of Canada is at the very core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy. The monarchy is the foundation of the executive (Queen-in-Council), legislature (Queen-in-Parliament), and judiciary (Queen-on-the-Bench) in the federal and each provincial jurisdiction. The Canadian sovereign is the personification of the Canadian state and, as a matter of constitutional law, is Canada. The current Canadian monarch, since 6 February 1952, is Queen Elizabeth II. Royal succession is determined according to common and statute law, which stipulates the throne is inherited by the sovereign's eldest living, non-Catholic child or, in the case of a childless sovereign, the nearest collateral line. As such, Elizabeth's son, Prince Charles, is heir apparent.

 

 Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Canada

 

-----

 

Governor General of Canada

 

Constitutional role

Though the monarch retains all executive, legislative, and judicial power in and over Canada, the governor general is permitted to exercise most of this, including the Royal Prerogative, in the sovereign's name; some as outlined in the Constitution Act, 1867, and some through various letters patent issued over the decades, particularly those from 1947 that constitute the Office of Governor General of Canada; they state: "And We do hereby authorize and empower Our Governor General, with the advice of Our Privy Council for Canada or of any members thereof or individually, as the case requires, to exercise all powers and authorities lawfully belonging to Us in respect of Canada."

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governor_General_of_Canada



------------------------------------------

We can see that Canada, Australia and Russia were trading uranium to India.

------------------------------------------

Monarchy of Australia


The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign. Australia is governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, largely modelled on the Westminster system of parliamentary government, while incorporating features unique to the Constitution of Australia.
The present monarch is Elizabeth II, styled Queen of Australia, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. She is represented in Australia by the Governor-General, in accordance with the Australian Constitution and letters patent from the Queen. In each of the states, the monarch is represented by a governor, appointed directly by the Queen on the advice of each of her respective state governments.
The Australian monarch, besides reigning in Australia, separately serves as monarch for each of 15 other Commonwealth realms.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Australia

----------------------------------------


Nicholas II of Russia

 Nicholas II or Nikolai II  May 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.



 Emperor Nicholas II of Russia with his physically similar cousin, King George V of the United Kingdom (right), in German military uniforms in Berlin before the war; 1913

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_II_of_Russia

-------------------------------


Prince Charles praises jihadi pirates for scaring off fishermen: “fantastic explosion for bigger and better fish”





 



PRINCE CHARLES has praised ocean pirates for scaring off fishermen that has led to a “fantastic explosion for bigger and better fish”.
Speaking at an ocean conservation conference in Malta, the Prince of Wales stirred up controversy by praising Somalian pirates for scaring off trawler crews to create a greater wealth of marine life.


 https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/10/prince-charles-praises-jihadi-pirates-for-scaring-off-fishermen-fantastic-explosion-for-bigger-and-better-fish


-------------------------------

Even when Europeans face genocide by Islamic terrorism, Prince Charles tries to appease the Islamic community, by dressing up in Islamic clothing.

There is nothing new about the British government using outside militaries to try and weaken the power of the British people. This was done several times in the past, and is one of the reasons why England and their French cousins were at war with each other so many different times. It is simple, it is a form of divide and conquer against the people of Europe. We need to start holding many governments liable for the assisted genocide against the European people, such as the very corrupt UK and French governments. Both of these governments are guilty of assisting with the genocide of the European people, while being allied with Islamic terrorist groups.


As we know, many people in the Russian Monarchy and British Monarchy were related, and were members of the Freemasons and the Knights of Malta. We can see how these secret societies have spread throughout the world, to even places such as India. We can see how these different secret societies try to influence world policy and gain control over different areas of the planet. Many different elite families that have had control in India for over 100 years, still remain to have influence and power. Many of these different families still have influence and power in India, including other countries as well. Many other groups and people have also tried to gain power along the way as well. We can see how India is one of the most corrupt governments in the world, while allowing the amount of environmental damage that has taken place around India.

--------------------------------

Famous Indian Masons

http://www.dglbombay.org/famous-indian-masons/

-----------------------------

Some Very Well Known Indian Freemasons


 http://www.masonindia.in/index.php/some-very-well-known-indian-freemasons/



-------------------------------------------------------

Grand Lodge of India


The Grand Lodge of India (GLI) is the main governing body of Freemasonry within India, it was officially constituted on Friday 24 November 1961.
There were three delegations from the Grand Lodge of Scotland, Grand Lodge of Ireland and Grand Lodge of England in that order.
Out of a total of 277 individual Lodges in India, 145 opted for the new Grand Lodge of India. This represented a little over 52 per cent of the Warranted Lodges in India.


Advent of Freemasonry in India


Freemasonry traces its roots in India in the early years of the 18th century. In 1730 officers of the East India Company held their meetings in Fort William in Calcutta. The number given to the Lodge was 72.
The Goshamal Baradari, Hyderabad, built in 1682 by Sultan Abul Hassan Tanasha, is the oldest building used as a Masonic Temple in India. Built in 1682, it was donated to the fraternity in 1872 by the Nizam of Hyderabad.


Philanthropy

The Grand Lodge of India supplies PV Solar module, charger/controller, storage batteries, LED lamps and electrical wiring from solar panels to houses in rural Uttara Kannada district specially karwar in Karnataka state. The Indian Grand Lodge organizes classrooms for children in prisons, help for disaster victims and solar lights to village students. The lodge has 425 branches in India with 25,000 members. The freemasons of India are hosting in New Delhi on Nov. 20

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Lodge_of_India

----------------------------------------------------------


From leaders to cities, how India owes a lot to the secret order of Freemasons

Swami Vivekananda, Pandit Motilal Nehru, Rajendra Prasad and Fakhrudin Ali Ahmed are some among many of the prominent Indian leaders who are believed to have joined freemasonry.

 

http://indianexpress.com/article/research/from-leaders-to-cities-how-india-owes-a-lot-to-the-secret-order-of-freemasons-3103288/

-------------------------------------------------------


Called to Order

 

India’s new society of women Freemasons

 

1 May 2017

The HFAF is one of only two Masonic orders for women across the world. For most of its history, however, Freemasonry was solely for men. Masonic fraternities began as guilds for craftsmen in Europe in the late fourteenth century, as stonemasons came together to form organisations to regulate their professional practices. In time, Masonic lodges promulgated across the continent, in the process welcoming members who were not craftsmen. They began hosting intellectual and spiritual discussions, and developed a complex system of allegory and symbolism to foster these discussions. Though the existence of these organisations was no secret, only Masons were privy to their allegory and rituals. The combination of this secrecy and the heavy use of symbols meant that Freemasonry was, and continues to be, easy fodder for conspiracy theorists. In an interview with an Indian newspaper in 2012, for example, Sadhana was asked whether Freemasons practised “Satanic rituals.”
In time, “co-Masonries” were formed—lodges consisting of both men and women. The HFAF used to be one of these, but, around the start of the twentieth century, its members decided to stop admitting new male members. It eventually became a fully female Masonic order. The HFAF shares its traditions, symbols, and allegory with the United Grand Lodge of England, or UGLE—the largest Masonic organisation in the world, in London...

http://www.caravanmagazine.in/lede/india-women-freemasons

--------------------------------------------------------


Nehru, Vivekananda, Tata were also Freemasons


They are one of the world’s oldest secretive societies whose members included Motilal Nehru, Vivekananda, JRD Tata, King George VI and George Washington, among others. Their temples and lodges are specimens of grand architecture and their arcane rituals have inspired as much curiosity as fear. They are the Freemasons.

http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/variety/nehru-vivekananda-tata-were-also-freemasons/article4237921.ece

--------------------------------------------------------


The Compass & The Crescent: Secret Societies of the Muslim Freemasons



Freemasonry burst onto the world stage early in the 18th century, spreading across the globe with remarkable speed. With Lodges established everywhere from London to India, and from America to the West Indies, Freemasons established the first truly global network by the end of the century.
Although English-speaking Freemasons considered themselves loyal subjects of their respective nations, they also saw themselves as part of a great brotherhood that transcended national borders, class, race, ethnicity, and even religion. This contradiction guaranteed that conflict eventually arose within Freemasonry’s ranks over its role in the world, and who could, and who could not, be made a member.
The first recorded initiation of a Jew into a Masonic Lodge is that of Edward Rose in 1732. Members of non-monotheistic faiths (such as Hinduism) faced more resistance, and the issue was not resolved until the 19th century.
Masonic Lodges were sometimes used, unofficially, by colonial powers (especially Britain and France) as part of diplomatic efforts. Initiating foreign dignitaries and even members of monarchies into Freemasonry helped cement relations between the two negotiating countries.
The Shah of Persia’s ambassador, Askeri-Khan, was initiated into Freemasonry in Paris in November 1808. He was impressed enough to have discussed the possibility of founding a Lodge in Isphahan, Persia (Iran). Two years later, in London, Mirza Abul Hassan Khan, Minister to the Court of Persia, was made a Freemason.
Things could be more difficult abroad, however, and the issue finally came to a head in 1865. Prosonno Coomar Dutt, a Hindu, had petitioned Lodge Courage with Humanity for initiation into the fraternity. In turn, the Master of the Lodge sought permission from the Provincial Grand Master, Hugh David Sandeman, who refused, citing “social considerations.” Around the same time, Said-ud-Dowlah, a Muslim prince, had been initiated into a Lodge of British Freemasons in Kanpur, India. Sandeman had officially refused permission for the initiation to take place, and, on learning about it, suspended two leaders of the Lodge for insubordination.
The exclusion of the two men, on the basis of race and religion, became a heated issue inside Freemasonry in India. Before the end of 1864 the news reached the United Grand Lodge of England, which subsequently decreed that Hindus and Muslims could be admitted into the fraternity to foster “brotherhood between man and man.” And they would also be exposed to “true religion and enlightenment.”
Despite the snobbery, and even revulsion, expressed by some Freemasons, Masonic intellectuals had long been interested in ancient and non-Western religion and its symbolism. During the 18th century, Freemasons developed a vast number of rituals, many of them esoteric or alchemical in nature. A century later, many of these ceased to be performed, or “worked,” and they faded into history. Others were compiled into Rites, some of which competed for prestige, or to be regarded as the most authentic. Notably, one 19th century Masonic Degree interpreted the Christian acronym I.N.R.I. as “India, Nature, Regeneration, Ignorance.” The Freemason had to overcome ignorance, and the “source of knowledge,” according to the Degree, was India.
Late in the same century a new force emerged in the East: anti-colonialism and national independence. There is a certain irony in the fact that two of the early figures in the push for Indian independence from Britain and for the revival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka had also been involved with Freemasonry, at least to some extent. The enigmatic Madame Helena Blavatsky, head of the Theosophical Society, had been granted a charter for a co-Masonic Order by British esoteric Freemason John Yarker. Colonel Henry Steel Olcott, the Theosophical Society’s number two, had also entered Freemasonry as a young man.
We will return to Yarker later, but here it is worth mentioning that Blavatsky and Olcott felt profound respect for the cultures they encountered in Asia, and were at the forefront of the independence movements in India and Sri Lanka. Although largely forgotten today, Olcott helped establish a Buddhist school system in Sri Lanka, and petitioned for greater rights for the country’s Buddhists (who were being culturally ‘cleansed’ so that Christian missionaries could proselytise more effectively). He also wrote a Buddhist catechism and helped design the international Buddhist flag, both of which are still in use.

Abd al-Qadir & Anti-Colonial Politics

Even before Blavatsky reached India, Freemasonry had already been intertwined with anti-colonial politics in the Middle East. Abd al-Qadir al-Jazairi (1808-1883), Sufi, resistance fighter, and Emir of Mascara in northwest Algeria, joined a Masonic Lodge in Egypt in 1864 after striking up a correspondence with a French Lodge. Other important figures to join the Masonic fraternity included the founding father of pan-Islamic anti-colonial politics, Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, the Grand Mufti of Egypt Muhammad ‘Abduh, and Shaykh Abdullah Quilliam, a convert to Islam and advocate for the rights of Muslims under the British Empire. Why would Muslim activists join Freemasonry during this period?
Abd al-Qadir, a descendent (sharif) of the Prophet of Islam, was born into a family of prominence in the Qadiriyya Order of Sufism. His father, the head of the Order, seems to have been keen that his son be well travelled and educated in the faith. During 1826-27, the two men journeyed to Mecca for the hajj, visiting Cairo, Damascus and Baghdad along the way. This afforded Abd al-Qadir the opportunity to meet and discuss with scholars of different Sufi traditions, and to gain a deeper understanding of the esoteric and philosophical traditions within Islam.


Islamising Freemasonry

Interest in pre-Christian and non-Western cultures, religions, Gnosticism, and symbolism proliferated early on in Freemasonry. During the 18th century, as it spread across Europe, Freemasonry incorporated Hermeticism, Rosicrucianism, Egyptology and chivalry, into various rituals. Before the end of the 19th century, the premier British Masonic journal Ars Quatuor Coronatorum had published articles on Hindu “Brahminical Initiation,” the swastika (a Hindu, Buddhist, and pre-Christian European symbol), the Qabala, and “West African Secret Tribal Societies,” among many other articles on similar themes.
Already by this time Islam had left its impression on several societies tied to Freemasonry. The Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles Mystic of the Shrine (better known as the Shriners or the Shrine) had been founded in New York, as had a rival group called the Mystic Order of the Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm (better known as the Grotto). Both required members to be Freemasons. Both adopted the fez as part of its official dress – in the former case, a red one with an Islamic-inspired crescent and the name of the Shriner temple on it, and in the latter case a black one bearing the image of a turbaned figure.
The Grotto’s nomenclature, ritual, and symbolism was based on the poem “The Veiled Prophet of Khorassan” by Thomas Moore (1779-1852). It focuses on al-Mokanna, the Veiled Prophet Hakem ben Haschem, who lived between the 7th and 8th centuries, and blended Islam with the pre-Islamic Persian religion of Zoroastrianism.
The Shrine was created by Dr. Walter M. Fleming, with the assistance of Charles T. McClenachan and some other Freemasons, in or around 1870, and its first temple – Mecca Temple – was established in New York. Although long known for its intentionally clownish parades through small suburban towns, some early histories of the Shrine claim a more esoteric origin: the Bektashi Order of Sufi Islam.
There were more serious attempts to introduce Islamic mysticism to Freemasons and spiritual adventurers in the West. After his failed attempt to scale Kanchenjunga, the world’s third largest mountain, in 1905, Freemason and magus Aleister Crowley (1875-1947) left the Himalayas and headed to Calcutta where he prepared to return to his native England via Persia. Part of Crowley’s preparation was to immerse himself in Sufi literature and to begin writing his “Ghazals of Ishtar,” imitating the style of the Sufis though instead focused on the ancient Babylonian and Assyrian goddess.
The project turned into The Scented Garden of Abdullah The Satirist of Shiraz. Though his least known work, Crowley, never a shrinking violet, claimed it transcended the Bhagavad Gita and the Tao Te Ching. The work had to be published pseudonymously since it included homoerotic and Gnostic content. The English magus chose the name ‘Abdullah al Haji’ who he claimed was active during the 17th century. Despite the ruse, most copies of The Scented Garden were seized and destroyed by customs during import to Britain from Crowley’s printer in Paris.
Notably, Crowley says in the text that he cannot discuss the inner working of Sufism, “if only because I am a Freemason.” The implication is, of course, that the two are in some way connected or at least kindred.
Crowley wasn’t the first English Freemason to see similarity between the Craft and Islam. In 1872, Kenneth MacKenzie founded the Order of Ishmael, on the authority of an Arab in Paris. In theory, at least, Christians (excluding Catholics), Hindus, Zoroastrians, Muslims, and others could be initiated, though the highest of its 36 Degrees was titled “Submission,” the literal translation of Islam (submission to the Will of Allah). John Yarker, a very active and influential figure in the underground esoteric Masonic scene, appears to have been involved in the project – which may have existed more on paper than in practice. Yarker played a role in the ‘fringe’ Masonic life of William Henry Quilliam (1856-1932), better known as Shaykh Abdullah Quilliam.

Shaykh Abdullah Quilliam & Freemasonry

Quilliam converted to Islam as a young man, and went on to become an influential figure in Muslim political life in Britain. Believing in the creation of an international Muslim brotherhood, Quilliam agitated for the rights of Muslims under the British Empire, and attempted to expel prejudice against Islam – which had a bad image in Britain during his lifetime. Besides this, the shaykh founded the first mosque in Britain, as well as an Islamic education centre and publishing house to disseminate literature on Islam.
His activities won him the attention of the Ottoman Empire, which appointed him Shaykh ul-Islam for the British Isles, and funded some of his work. At the same time, Quilliam was active in both regular Freemasonry and the ‘fringe’ Masonic societies of the Sat Bhai (which was influenced by Hindu mysticism) and the Swedenborgian Rite. More significantly, Quilliam was undoubtedly the founder of the Ancient Order of Zuzimites, which adopted the structure of the Masonic Craft Ritual and the symbolism of pharaonic Egypt.
Quilliam seems to have understood that Freemasonry was more sympathetic to Islam than mainstream society in the English-speaking world. Indeed, some important Masonic journals, which he wrote for, noted his Islamic credentials. It is highly likely that, like Abd al-Qadir and many other Muslims who joined Masonic Lodges, he saw the fraternity as offering the possibility of a transcending of religious and ethnic boundaries – and as a Muslim in a Christian country he would have been all too aware. Perhaps, like Crowley, he saw some manifestations of Islam and Freemasonry as compatible.
Whatever the case, it is extremely significant that some of the more important and radical Muslim activists sought initiation into Freemasonry during the 19th century, and that some Freemasons and societies linked to Freemasonry were, in turn, influenced by Islam. These historical episodes may have been almost entirely forgotten, but whether we like it or not, these influential individuals and groups helped shape the world we live in today.

https://www.newdawnmagazine.com/articles/the-compass-the-crescent-secret-societies-of-the-muslim-freemasons

-------------------------------------------------------



Masons offer hand, not handshake, in friendship


05th July 2017


BENGALURU: On July 17, another royal scion Yaduveer Krishnadatta Chamaraja Wadiyar will be initiated as a Mason or a Freemason. Before him, his uncle Srikantadatta Narasimharaja Wadiyar Bahadur and his grandfather Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar were also Masons.This is shared by Anurag Sahae, the Assistant Regional Grand Master of India, over a chat at his fellow Mason’s advertising agency. If you go by movies and popular myths, such a revelation would have been followed by the murders of the Mason and the listener; instead we are served tea.

Freemasons or Masons, a guild of masons that formed in the early 11 C in England and Scotland, are believed to be fanatically secretive. But, over the years, the powers-that-be have decided to make a more conscious effort to be more transparent with the general public. Sahae, who has been given charge of the Masonry in Bengaluru region which includes Mysuru, Mandya, Tumakuru and KGF, says, “I can tell you where the lodges are, who are the Masons in the city, who the Grand Master is... it is Haracharan Singh Ranaut and the Regional Grand Master for the south is Abraham Markos, but I cannot tell you the rituals.”
The rituals followed by the Masons have spawned memes and conspiracy theories...

http://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/bengaluru/2017/jul/04/masons-offer-hand-not-handshake-in-friendship-1624250--1.html

-----------------------------------------------------

The Freemasons of Armenian Origin



Armenians have been one of those people who maintained their culture and traditions almost intact from antiquity to the present day. Through centuries they’ve adapted to dozens of different currents of thought and suffered persecutions of all kinds because of religion and geographic position. From an ancient Indo-European origin, they have forged their own language and coined a vast pagan history until they became the first nation that accepted Christianity as the Official State Religion. (c.301).
From ancient times, in the Armenian Plateau, in the Caucasus and in the whole of Anatolia, many brotherhoods and initiation orders have developed. These “brotherhoods”, whether of a religious, political or social character, created dominant cultures and emerging subcultures for hundreds of year in Asia Minor. the Tondrakian and the Paulician movements that followed Christian teachings very close to Manichaeism; the Knights Templars; Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights, important actors during the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia; the Children of the Sun (Arevortik), an Armenian neo-pagan heresy of the 13th century; as well as the polemic Hashashin. All of them have developed in the territory of Historical Armenia. Also in historic Armenia, the “operative freemasonry,” that is to say, the pure architectural masonry, has created master craftsmen, superb stonecutters and cathedral builders who reached their peak during the Middle Ages. Important historic characters such as Trdat, Momik, Sarkis and Manvel, among others, left their trace through signatures, signs and secret symbols spread in the hundreds of monuments, churches and stone crosses (Khachkars) still decorating the Armenian Republic and its neighboring countries. Some of these builders were traveling masons who have left their mark in numerous churches throughout Europe and Asia.
The History of the Armenian Freemasons begins under the auspices of the United Grand Lodge of England. The English “East India Company” introduced freemasonry of English origin in Madras (now Chennai) in 1730. Many Armenian merchants who were already established tradesmen in India and Southeast Asia also played an important role in the East India Company. They followed the English rules of conduct and often traveled throughout Europe and, at the same time, had ascended in the Indian social strata.
As the first instance of an active member of Armenian origin in one of the Informative Bulletins of the Cannon-gate Lodge in Edinburgh, (1762) it is stated that “… four Worshipful Masters would represent the United Grand Lodge of England in the territories of the Middle East, Aleppo and Iran…” Among those four persons, it was the name of the Armenian Dr. Manasse who was appointed as Provincial Grand Master for “Armenia” by order of the Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England, Earl Ferrers, from 1762 to 1764. Until 1805, when the name of Manasse officially disappeared, the group of four lodges headed by these Worshipful Masters was called “All Armenia in the East Indies”— remarkable for this period, the foundation of the First Lodge composed of members of Armenian origin.
On October 6th 1837, in the city of Madras, Colonial India, the Lodge “Armenian” No. 685 was consecrated under the auspices of the United Grand Lodge of England. This lodge had a brief life (1865) as a result of ups and downs in its activities. It was linked to prestigious families of established Armenian merchants in that city. The Lodge “Armenia” No. 685 worked in the Armenia Street in that city.
The last Masonic link of Armenian origin, and of relevant importance in Victorian India, was Sir Paul Chater (Khachik Pogos Astvatsatoor). Born in Calcutta in 1846, he was a prestigious and successful man who developed all his potential in imperial Hong Kong. He has been Worshipful Master of the Lodge “Perseverance” No. 1165, Grand Master of the Hong Kong District and the South of China for the United Grand Lodge of England (1881-1909), one of the first Armenian masons in having the Masonic High Degree 33° and, even today, the District of the United Grand Lodge of England for Hong Kong and the Far East auspices a lodge called “Paul Chater Lodge of Installed Masters” No. 5391. Undoubtedly, he was one of the masons of Armenian origin who had reached one of the highest points on the scale of Regular Freemasonry.
Closer to Historic Armenia, during the Ottoman Empire, the upper classes of Armenians had begun to interact defending the ideas proclaimed by the West, “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity”. At the same time, the Grand Masonic Powers (whether Grand Lodges or Grand Orients) planned the mission of westernizing the region and founding as many Masonic lodges as they could. The Grand Orient of Italy, the Grand Lodge of Scotland, the United Grand Lodge of England and the Grand Orient of France worked actively to spread the formation of Masonic lodges in the heart of the Empire.

http://freimaurer-wiki.de/index.php/En:_The_Freemasons_of_Armenian_Origin

------------------------------------------------------


Freemasons in Karachi: A lodge called hope clings to history as saviour


 April 28, 2012

https://tribune.com.pk/story/371082/freemasons-in-karachi-a-lodge-called-hope-clings-to-history-as-saviour/

---------------------------------------------------------


The Historiography of the Jesuit Missions in India (1500–1800)


http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/jesuit-historiography-online/the-historiography-of-the-jesuit-missions-in-india-15001800-COM_192579

-------------------------------------------------------------

 JESUIT INSTITUTIONS IN INDIA

https://www.manresa-sj.org/stamps/2_India.htm

---------------------------------------------------------

 Delhi Jesuits

http://www.delhijesuits.org/

----------------------------------------------------------

Jesuits in the History of India

 
1.03

Also because the Societys influence has been present in one form or other in almost every region of India - not only in what is today the Republic of India, but what went by the name of India during the peak-years of the British Raj, and also areas around it, including many parts of the present day Pakistan, Bangladesh, Tibet, Ceylon, Nepal, Sikkim and other geographical and political regions and territories.


2.01

The Society of Jesus ( as mentioned above ) has been perhaps the only institution / organisation of any size and impact in India that has been in existence practically continuously for the past well-nigh four centuries and a half. At this stage, without entering into any detailed discussion, the mere dates of the various ruling dynasties or organisations which wielded significant power in the second half of the second millennium may be profitably scrutinised. It would be easily seen that none of the powers dominated for more than a part of, and in most cases a very small part of, the 450 years for which the Society has been working in India.


http://kunjethy.tripod.com/indiajesuits/

--------------------------------------------------------

 Madurai Jesuits

http://www.maduraijesuits.org/whoweare.htm
--------------------------------------------------------


Category: Indian Jesuits


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Indian_Jesuits

--------------------------------------------------------

 Jesuit Conference of South Asia


http://www.jcsaweb.org/

---------------------------------------------------------


The Mysterious Sealed Temple Door No One Can Open




 



Naga Bandham:

 

The Naga Bandham is said to the power that is protecting Chamber B. Tourists or foreigners who have heard of this phrase will be looking at a more intricate aspect of Hinduism.
The Naga Bandham is also called a snake-binding spell. A successful spell will have various serpentine deities guard the treasure of a particular place. This is also the reason why there are various snake idols worshipped in temples around the country. In fact, the deity Vishnu is also often depicted riding a snake. There are also special parts of the temple dedicated for these snake deities.
However, the prevalence of snake deities and figures is not exclusive to Indian culture. Ancient cultures such as the Greeks and the Egyptians also feature serpentine and reptilian creatures. In Greek culture, a "dragon" is some form of superior snake. Even Egyptians have deities such as the protector goddess Wadjet who has the head of a snake, and the chaos god Apep who appears as a snake.
The Naga Bandham is Chamber B is said to be unlocked by special sound waves. Some say the lock inside the door can be accessed through sound. Given the right frequency, the sound waves will be amplified and "connect" through the links inside the door. Continuous exposure to the sound will have the links interact and eventually open Chamber B.
If another person tries to open the door with a different spell, or the same spell with the wrong intonation, the sound waves are directed somewhere else. Perhaps this can cause a trap to be opened or, in the case of Chamber B, the aforementioned calamity.
No one knows what lies inside The Padmanabhaswamy Temple and its secret Chamber B. No one has chanted the Garuda Mantra correctly up to this day, and the order of the Supreme Court against opening Chamber B still stands.
Are the legends surrounding Chamber B true? Will there be an unspeakable calamity once its doors are opened by force? Or will there be someone who can chant the spell correctly and give access to its rumored treasure?

https://www.beyondsciencetv.com/news/2017/6/15/the-mysterious-sealed-temple-door-no-one-can-open-last-door-of-padmanabhaswamy

--------------------------------


A One Trillion Dollar Hidden Treasure Chamber is Discovered at India's Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple


 

I was recently traveling extensively throughout India and was excited to visit Thiruvananthapuram along the southwest coast, filled with British colonial architecture and lined by popular beaches. What intrigued me about the area was the excitement in the Indian press and throughout the region of the mass treasures that were unearthed at the famed Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple. Visiting the temple I was awestruck at its decadence and gold plated glory. This was after all the richest temple in the world. After my visit, it was announced that a new hidden treasure vault had been discovered beyond the already well documented Vault B inside. Adding to recent treasure findings in several other vaults, the researchers are estimating could total over $1 trillion. But that is where the problem starts, nobody wants to dare open the hidden inner sanctum.
Like all hidden treasure stories, Kerala’s Shree Padmanabhaswamy Temple has been a fascination in India for many years, and one shrouded in mystery and fear. Two enormous Cobras are rumored to be protecting the inner most hidden chamber. To make matters worse, legend has it that anyone who opens the vault will be met with disastrous results.
The mysterious Vault B has kept everyone at bay for many years, although five other vaults were opened in 2011 by a team approved by the Supreme Court. The inventory unveiled a major priceless treasure. Massive piles of jewels, idols and coins were uncovered.  The myth of Vault B and its dangers were recently discounted when the Auditor General Vinod Rai informed the Supreme Court that Vault B  had been opened at least seven times to his knowledge since 1990 and nothing horrific happened.


(UPDATED 8/22/16) According to the India Times, an audit conducted into the assets of the famed Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple in Kerala's Thiruvananthapuram has shown that a massive amount of gold from its repositories has mysteriously disappeared. Up to 769 Gold Pots and Silver bars have been reported missing. Some skeptics are also suggesting that there is a hidden tunnel beneath the chamber that allowed the architects to lock the chamber doors from within, making it impossible to breach. This secret tunnel could invariably have led to many years of plundering the treasure trove without anyone noticing.

(UPDATED 5/24/16) An expert panel inventorying assets at the Temple has approached the apex court for permission to open the vault, as per a report in Hindustan Times. The report also added that the Travancore royal family along with a section of devotees and the shrine’s administration opposed the opening of the B-vault but may lose their fight to an expected Supreme Court ruling.


What has not been acknowledged by the Indian Court is the existence of a hidden inner chamber beyond Vault B. This chamber is historical told to have thick walls made of solid gold and it is where the mystery really exists, and could contain the largest undiscovered treasure find in the history of the world.
Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu. The shrine is currently run by a trust headed by the royal family of Travancore. The temple and its assets belong to Lord Padmanabhaswamy, and were for a long time controlled by a trust headed by the Travancore Royal family. However, now the Supreme Court of India has removed the Travancore Royal Family from leading the management of the temple.
The temple is one of 108 centers of worship in Vaishnavism. The temple is renown from the early medieval Tamil literature (6th–9th centuries), with structural additions to it made throughout the 16th century, when its ornate Gopuram was constructed.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jimdobson/2015/11/13/a-one-trillion-dollar-hidden-treasure-chamber-is-discovered-at-indias-sree-padmanabhaswam-temple/#1cc0033f1ba6

---------------------------

Indian royals in row over missing temple treasures


 Sep 2016
Kerala’s former rulers in court battle over gold, carvings and jewels from vaults of 16th-century temple 
Only a handful of people have laid eyes on the treasure of the Padmanabhaswamy temple in the city of Thiruvananthapuram, formerly Trivandrum, capital of Kerala in southern India. Lawyer Ananda Padmanabhan is one of the lucky few. “I have seen the items in the vault but I can’t say much about it as a court case is still going on,” he said.
Its riches are worth billions of rupees, and for the past eight years, Padmanabhan has been fighting to protect them. He believes that more than a billion rupees’ worth of gold has been taken from the temple and blames the Travancore royal family, the temple’s original guardians, who still believe that they should have custody of the fortunes of Padmanabhaswamy.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/24/former-maharajahs-accused-over-temple-treasures


-------------------------

Nagas of Padmavati


 Naga Dynasty (or Nagas of Padmavati) (Hindi: नाग) (210 – 340 CE) was an ancient royal family of Central India that ruled Vidisha, Padmavati, Kantipur and Mathura.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nagas_of_Padmavati

---------------------------------------------------



'Ancient Aliens (History Channel)

Episode Description

The Reptilians

The Reptilian alien is a fixture of science-fiction, from H.P. Lovecraft’s tales of Valusians to the Cardassians in Star Trek, to the Visitors of the television series V. But could ancient myths about reptilian creatures provide evidence that they are more than just a pop-culture creation? Legends of serpent beings can be found on every continent. The Bible, the Quran and the ancient texts known as the Nag Hammadi codices all describe reptilian entities interacting with humans. In Central and South America people worship the feathered serpent god called Kulkukan or Quetzalcoatl. In India, the Nagas are half-human half-reptile gods who live underground in a place called Patala. And in China and Japan, many emperors claim to be the descendants of dragons. Could these stories represent real Reptilian beings that people all over the world actually encountered in the ancient past?


http://www.history.ca/ancient-aliens/episode-guide/the-reptilians/


-----------------------------------------------------

The NAGA: Reptilian Type Beings Featured In Many Cultures Around The World


February 13, 2017

 http://www.collective-evolution.com/2017/02/13/the-naga-reptilian-type-beings-featured-in-many-cultures-around-the-world/


--------------------------------------------'


 For more information on this religious topic and debate, view our article titled
Pollution Science 101 - Russia - PollutionScience101Russia.Blogspot.com


------------------------------------------


"Nagas half human half reptilian aliens"

 https://www.google.com/search?source=hp&q=nagas+half+human+half+reptilian+aliens&oq=nagas+half+human+half+reptilian+aliens&gs_l=psy-ab.12...2974.2974.0.4210.3.2.0.0.0.0.185.185.0j1.2.0.dummy_maps_web_fallback...0...1.2.64.psy-ab..1.1.161.6..35i39k1.162.H6UIZAdyWZ0


--------------------------------------------


Serving the dragon - the past

The ancient world abounds with stories of the serpent or dragon race and royal kings, queens, and emperors who claim their right to rule through their descent from the serpent gods.

The Sumerian accounts tell of flying serpents and dragons breathing fire (symbolic of their aerial craft?) and how the kings of Sumer, going back long before the deluge to some 240,000BC, were "changelings" seeded by the union of the gods and humans. Sargon the Great, that famous ruler of the Sumer Empire, claimed this genetic origin and the very existence of "kingship" is reported very clearly to have been a gift of these gods.


The dragon kings

The kings of the succession in the reptilian bloodlines were known as "Dragons". When many kingdoms joined together in battle, or as a group of kingdoms, they appointed a king of kings. These were known as the Great Dragon or... Draco. The Celtic title of Pendragon, as in Uther Pendragon, the father of "King Arthur" in the Grail stories, was a version of this. In the legends, the symbolic Arthur was a descendant of the dragons and his helmet (or El-met, named after a reptilian goddess called El) carried a dragon motif.

The red dragon symbol of Wales comes from the claim by Merlin, Arthur's "magician", that the red dragon symbolized the people of Britain. Merlin was described as only half human because he was the child of an underground being and a human woman. The Arthurian stories include all the classic elements of the story, including the creation of royal bloodlines through the interbreeding between humans and non-human entities, shape-shifting, the use of holographic images to hide a being's true form, and battles between competing dragons.
Geoffrey of Monmouth, the 12th century historian, said that Merlin's earlier name had been Ambrosius, thus possibly associating him with the Greek term for menstrual blood, Ambrosia, which the reptilians love to drink.5 There is also the theme of the "Lady of the Lake" and this connects with the stories of goddess-worshipping serpent peoples like the Nagas living in underground centers located under lakes and lochs.
Like the Celtic myth and folklore, the ancient Greek culture was inspired by the Sumerians and the earlier Atlanteans and Lemurians and was based almost entirely on their stories and myths under different names. All over the ancient world you find the same recurring stories of the serpent gods.
Throughout the Sumer Empire the people worshipped serpent gods and as the Reverend John Bathhurst Deane wrote in his book, The Worship Of The Serpent:
"...One of [the] five builders of Thebes [in Egypt] was named after the serpent-god of the Phoenicians, Ofhion ...The first altar erected to Cyclops at Athens was to 'Ops', the serpent deity... The symbolic worship of the serpent was so common in Greece that Justin Martyr accuses the Greeks of introducing it into the mysteries of all their gods."6
 
The Hebrew serpents

I have mentioned that in Hebrew myth, the Biblical "Nefilim", the "sons of the gods", are called awwim, which means devastators or serpents. Hebrew legends also describe the Eden serpent as a being who walked and talked like a human. The Hebrew book of ancient oral tradition, the Haggadah, speaks of this serpent as a creature with two legs that stood upright to the "height of a camel".7
The Slavonic Apocalypse of Abraham says the serpent with Eve had hands, feet and wings,8 just like many other ancient and modern descriptions of the Draco. The Hebrew stories came from the earlier Sumerian, Atlantean, and Lemurian accounts, many of them changed and twisted to suit the priesthood and to lose most of the direct reptilian references. These can be identified, however, by following the trail from which their terms and names derived. The name of the Hebrew winged "angels", the Seraphim, means serpent and they were described as having six wings -just like the one in the Garden of Eden featured in the Apocalypse of Abraham.9 

 The garden of Eden, Edin, Heden

The serpent that "tempted" Eve in the Biblical Garden of Eden is the best-known serpent symbolism of all. This was an edited rewrite of the far more ancient Sumerian story of Edin, the "Land of the Gods or the Righteous Ones". There is again a common theme of the serpent gods in a garden, and James Churchward suggests in The Children Of Mu that these "gardens" all refer to Lemuria-Mu, the "Motherland". I think he could well be correct.
The Persians spoke of a region of bliss and delight called Heden, which was more beautiful than the entire world. It was the abode of the first men before an evil spirit in the form of a serpent tempted them to take the fruit of a forbidden tree. There is also the banyan tree under which the Hindu "Jesus", known as Krishna, sat upon a coiled serpent and bestowed spiritual knowledge on humanity. The ancient Greeks had a tradition of the Islands of the Blessed and the Garden of the Hesperides in which grew the golden apples of immortality.
The garden was defended by a dragon. In Chinese sacred books there is a garden that contained trees bearing the fruit of immortality. It, too, was guarded by a winged serpent called a dragon. The ancient people of Mexico had their version of the Eve story that involves a great male serpent, and a Hindu legend tells of the sacred mountain of Meru, guarded by a dreadful dragon. This was said of so many ancient places.
The belief in a serpent or half-reptile, half-human, giving knowledge to humanity is also a universal story.
  

Asian serpents

The Indus Valley culture of the Sumer Empire and the Lemurians, and the Hindu religion and Indian mythology that emerged there, are full of references to the serpent gods and flying dragons who brought knowledge and fought with each other in the sky. They called them the Nagas, as we have seen, and they said they could take either reptilian or human form whenever they chose.10
The Nagas, who originated in Lemuria, seeded the "royal" families, we are told, and interbred with the white peoples. It was said that the Indian serpent-goddess Kadru gave birth to all the Nagas or "cobra people" and made them immortal by feeding them her lunar (menstrual) blood. The theme of the serpent goddess or serpent queen is everywhere, as we shall see in detail later, and in Figure 17 you can see the symbolism of "serpent maidens" in Indian art. 

 Serpents of the far east

The entire culture of China is based on the dragon and serpent race. Once again, here was a highly developed civilization thousands of years ago that was inspired by Lemurians and later influenced by the Sumer Empire. Even today their languages and writing are remarkably similar, as are their myths and stories. The great age of Chinese culture is reckoned to have begun around 2800BC -when the Sumer Empire was in full swing.
Chinese history says that the first humans were created by an ancient goddess called Nu Kua, who was half dragon and half human. The Yih King, a very ancient Chinese book, says that the dragons and humans once lived in peace and that they intermarried and interbred.14 Ancient Chinese emperors were described as "dragon-faced" and looking like the dragon gods.
Japanese emperors claim descent from these same "gods" and their ancient legends say those islands were populated by beings that came from the sky Again James Churchward connects the Japanese race to Lemuria-Mu. There are countless Japanese legends about serpents and dragons, and their marriages and sexual encounters with humans that produced reptilian-human offspring. Shape-shifting serpent people would change into beautiful men and women, and lure human warriors and leaders into sexual encounters... 

 Serpents of the Americas

The story is the same in the Americas with the serpent gods at the heart of the ancient myths and legends of North, South and Central America. The books of the Mayans called Chilam Balaam say the first settlers of the Yucatan in Mexico were the Chanes or "People of the Serpent".24
They were said to have come across the sea led by a god-figure called Itzamna, a name that apparently comes from the word itzem, which translates as lizard or reptile.25 Itzamna, the sacred city of the god, therefore, means "the place of the lizard" or "Iguana House".26 Itzamna's symbol was the Tau cross also known as the T-square in Freemasonry. Quetzalcoatl, the most famous Central American "serpent" god, also carried a Tau cross.
This cross, like the Christian cross, refers to crossbreeding in Illuminati symbolism and not polarity union as is often claimed. While excavating in Central America near a place called Texcoco, the archaeologist William Niven discovered more than 20,000 tablets that included many symbols identical to those found on the Naacal tablets, which James Churchward had seen in India.27...

African serpents

Credo Mutwa, the official historian of the Zulu nation, has painted pictures from ancient and modern descriptions of these reptilian entities (see picture section) and describes the various levels of the fiercely imposed genetic hierarchy. The lower levels are the "warriors", the "poor bloody infantry" as we say in Britain.
They are ruled by the "Royal" leaders, which have horns and tails, and at the very top are beings with a white, albino-like, skin and not the greenish or brownish color of the others. Witnesses and abductees have reported seeing reptilian beings with albino-like skin and these descriptions can also be found in ancient texts.
In Africa the reptilians are known as the Chitauri or "Children of the Serpent" and "Children of the Python".
This is so close to the Central American term "People of the Serpent". Africa is another continent awash with the legend of the serpent race. For Anunnaki, Annetoti, Nagas, Dravidians, and so on, read Chitauri. Different names, same people.

Credo Mutwa talks for hours on the video The Reptilian Agenda, part one, about the background and history of the Chitauri, and he confirms the theme of shape-shifting and how the Chitauri bloodlines can take either human or reptilian form. He describes how the Earth was once encircled by a canopy of water vapor (the "firmament") that was destroyed in a cataclysm.
This water vapor protected the planet from the harsh effects of the Sun, and the whole planet was moist and humid and had a constant temperature. It was a place of enormous abundance and vast forests.
This is a common description of the Golden Age - the Lemurian "Garden of Eden". But, he says, that when the Chitauri destroyed this canopy (symbolized by the Biblical 40 days and 40 nights of rain) the whole climate changed as the Sun's rays baked once green and abundant lands like Egypt and began to form the deserts.
Scientists agree that Egypt, now part of the Sahara Desert, was once a green and pleasant land. This could explain the water erosion found on the Sphinx. To divide and rule the people, Credo continues, the Chitauri scattered them across the Earth and gave them different languages so they could not communicate with each other. This is another story repeated all over the world and not just in the Old Testament version of the Tower of Babel.
That was a steal from many more ancient accounts. The Hopi say that when they came to the surface on the orders of "Spider Woman", a "mocking bird" arrived to confuse their language and make the tribes talk in different tongues. Credo, repeating the information passed on to him in a lifetime of initiations into this underground knowledge, said that the Chitauri reptilians interbred with all races to create the reptilian-mammalian hybrids through which they rule...


--------------------------------------------

Nāga


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C4%81ga#Hinduism


----------------------------------------------------


The Secret of the Temple

 

 April 2012

 

The discovery of treasure worth billions of dollars shakes southern India.


https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/04/30/the-secret-of-the-temple

---------------------------------------------------------

Researchers Discover A UFO Alien Temple In India 

(Ancient Aliens, History Channel video)

 In the nineteenth century an ancient temple in western India which is presumed to have been constructed thousands of years ago was discovered by the British colonialists. The magnificent and intricately designed temple is a source of fascination for many, not just because of its extraordinary design but because it may offer insight into the origins of India’s mysterious mystical tradition. This documentary examines the claims that the myths of ancient India were based on real life contact with otherworldly spiritual beings, who may well have been alien creatures.

http://www.disclose.tv/action/viewvideo/89558/ufo_alien_temple_found_in_india/

------------------------------------------------------

Vimana



 Vimāna is a flying palace or chariot described in Hindu texts and Sanskrit epics which was controlled by the mind. The Pushpaka Vimana of the demon king Ravana (which was taken from Lord Kubera, and returned to him by Rama) is the most quoted example of a vimana. Vimanas are also mentioned in Jain texts.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vimana


---------------------------------------------------------


Vimanas and Flying Machines in Vedic Literature


 July 4, 2014

http://ancientufo.org/2014/07/vimanas-flying-machines-in-vedic-literature/



-------------------------------------------------------


The truth is out there: Tales from India’s UFO investigators

  

May 11, 2017

Lights in the sky, levitating beings, hard science vs conjecture: Meet the guys trying to sift the crazies from the true witnesses in their search for unidentified flying objects.


http://www.hindustantimes.com/more-lifestyle/the-truth-is-out-there-tales-from-india-s-ufo-investigators/story-9crhwh8tiWKU4LSvwCfrpM.html

-------------------------------------------------------


10,000-year-old rock paintings depicting aliens and UFOs found in Chhattisgarh


| TNN | Jul 15, 2014

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/10000-year-old-rock-paintings-depicting-aliens-and-UFOs-found-in-Chhattisgarh/articleshow/38435091.cms

----------------------------------------------------------


Royal lie? Kerala treasure temple vault was opened in 2007 [Photos]


 

http://www.firstpost.com/photos/politics-gallery/royal-lie-kerala-treasure-temple-vault-was-opened-in-2007-77031.html

---------------------------------------------------------


20 Places In India More Mysterious Than The Bermuda Triangle



5. The ‘Holy’ Rat Infested Karni Mata Temple at Deshnok, Rajasthan

 

 The Karni Mata Temple is one of the most holy sanctums, but little do people know that it is also one of the most mysterious places in India. The temple is home to over 20,000 rats. Revolting as it may sound, one is not allowed to kill, hurt, or even scare them away!
The Mystery: These rats, or ‘kabbas’, as they’re called there, are considered to be highly auspicious, are worshipped, and safeguarded, which is why they hold more value than the humans visiting the shrine.
The Myth: The rats are believed to be the reincarnated relatives and family members of Karni Mata. In fact, the rare, white mice at the place are considered to be her sons.


11. The Red Rain at Idukki, Kerala


 Apart from a place with rich natural splendour of the Western Ghats, a vast forest reserve, & the tempting coastal curry, Idukki, or the ‘Red Region’, is also famous as one of the mysterious places in India.
The Mystery: The red coloured rain at Idukki first fell on 25th July, 2001, and occurred sporadically for 2 months, staining clothes and buildings as it poured. This blood-red downpour, when collected by the locals, turned into clean water with red particles settled at the bottom.
The Theory: The scientists, after much analysis and debate, have zeroed in on one explanation for this occurrence. They say that the red particles are airborne spores of the locally growing alga in the region.



http://traveltriangle.com/blog/mysterious-places-in-india/

--------------------------------------------------------


Have You Heard of These 10 Mysterious Places in India Yet?


9. Lonar Crater Lake, Maharashtra – World’s Only Hyper-velocity Impact Crater

What’s The Mystery?
Lonar, an unremarkable village around 140 kms from Aurangabad, is home to a highly remarkable meteor impact crater. Recognized as the only hyper-velocity impact crater in basaltic rock in the world, it has a lake inside it that is alkaline and saline at the same time.
To add to the science fiction elements, no one knows the source of the perennial springs that feed the lake and what lurks at its murky bottom. Moreover, compasses don’t work in many parts of the lake and somehow the unique chemical composition of its water supports several microorganisms that are rarely found elsewhere on our planet.


https://www.makemytrip.com/blog/mysterious-places-in-india

---------------------------------------------------------

Konark



Konark is a medium town in the Puri district in the state of Odisha, India. It lies on the coast by the Bay of Bengal, 65 kilometers from the capital of the state, Bhubaneswar

The Sun Temple


The Sun Temple was built in the 13th century and designed as a gigantic chariot of the Sun God, Surya, with twelve pairs of ornamented wheels pulled by seven horses. Some of the wheels are 3 meters wide. Only six of the seven horse still stand today.[8] The temple fell into disuse after an envoy of Jahangir desecrated the temple in the early 17th century.[9]
In the days of its grandeur, the main idol of Sun God used to remain suspended in the air with the help of the huge magnet at the peak and another magnet fixed at the basement.

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konark

-------------------------------------------------------


 25 Mysterious Places In India That Will Give You The Creeps

 Aug 2014

http://www.thrillophilia.com/blog/mysterious-places-in-india/

-----------------------------------------------------




Could newly discovered ancient stairs lead to more treasures under Vishnu Temple?


 27 April, 2014

Archaeologists have unearthed a set of three ancient granite steps and building foundations near the northern entrance to the Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple, located in Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of the State of Kerala in India, according to reports in the New Indian Express .  The temple, which is dedicated to Lord Vishnu, is famous for its underground tunnels and the billion-dollar treasure uncovered in its secret vaults several years ago.
“The basement made of brick and laterite stone could be part of the temple complex in the past,” said Archaeology Department director G Premkumar.

http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/could-newly-discovered-ancient-stairs-lead-more-treasures-098878

-------------------------------------------------------

17 Creepiest Unsolved Mysteries From India That Will Leave You Baffled


http://inyminy.com/17-creepiest-unsolved-mysteries-india-will-leave-baffled/


----------------------------------------------------


10 mind-boggling images of the Kailasa Temple that prove ancient man had advanced technology


It seems that it has become a custom for mainstream scholars to discredit ancient cultures around the globe. Numerous ancient sites point to the fact that ancient civilizations that lived on Earth thousands of years ago were extremely advanced and sophisticated. Proof of that is yet another ancient site that cannot be replicated with ease, even today, in the 21st century.


https://www.ancient-code.com/10-mind-boggling-images-kailasa-temple-prove-ancient-advanced-technology/


---------------------------------

For more information on many of the solutions to the problems in India, view our article Pollution Science 101 - Solutions ( PollutionScience101Solutions.Blogspot.com  ).

-------------------------------


 To read an additional article about the pollution going on in India, click on the following link. This link is considered an additional section to this article.

To continue with Pollution Science 101 - India, view the following article: Pollution Science 101 - India - Ecological Collapse ( PollutionsScience101India.Blogspot.com ).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                         TheInvestigations@Email.com

----------------------------------------------------------------------------